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The Lewis Carroll Society of North America 




spring 2003 



Volume II Issue 1 



Number 71 




Knight Letter \s the official magazine of the Lewis Carroll Society 
of North America. It is published several times a year and is 

distributed free to all members. Subscriptions, business 

correspondence, and inquiries should be addressed to the 

Secretary, P.O. Box 204, Napa CA 94559. Annual membership 

dues are U.S. $20 (regular) and |50 (sustaining). Submissions 

and editorial correspondence should be sent to the Editor, 

preferably by e-mail, or mailed to Box 2006, 

Mill Valley CA 94942. 



The Lewis Carroll Society of North America 

President: 
Alan Tannenbaum, tannenbaum@mindspring.com 

Vice-President and Knight Letter ^dxlor: 
Mark Burstein, wrabbit@worldpassage.net 

Secretary: 
Cindy Watter, hedgehogccw@sbcglobal.net 




www.LewisCarroll.org 



On the Cover: 

Detail from John Tenniel's two-page spread entitled 

"Mr. Punch's Odd-Fisheries Exhibition For 1884" 

from Punch's Almanack for 1884, December 4, 1883. 

He portrayed the Walrus more realistically than in Looking-Glass, 

but comically gave the Carpenter the form of a sawfish, complete 

with paper hat. Note also the well-shod Oysters and the Mock Turde. 



C0™T3 



THe ReCTORY UMBRGLLA 

Our Kind of Town 
Mark Burstein with Joel Birenbaum 

5 

On a Walrus Train of Thought: 

Carrying a Couple of Things Too Many 

Matthew Demakos 

10 

The Incorruptible Crown 

Kate Lyon 

15 

Parody, Parity, and Paradox in 

"Will You Walk a Little Faster?" 

Chloe Nichols 

19 

Carroll's Monsters 

Ruth Berman 

21 

Moscow's Lewis Carroll Fans 
Nina Demurova 

24 

X Markse the Spot 
Dr John Tufail 

25 

Project Gutenberg, Alice, and Me 
Michael S. Hart 

27 

Borges and Carroll: On a Scale of One to One 
Clare Imholtz 

28 

The Forbes Collection Sale 

Hugues Lebailly 

29 

Trvo More Contemporary Revieivs ofSylvie and Bruno 

August A. hnholtz.Jr. and Clare Imholtz 

31 



MISCH-MASCH 

^ 

Leaves from the Deanery Garden 

32 

In Memoriam: Philip Dodgson Jaques 
33 

Ravings from the Writing Desk 
Alan Tannenbaum 

34 

SeRBNDIPlTY 

34 

SOCieXY ANNOUNCeMGNTS 
35 

Lights! Camera! Auction! 

Calling All Members! 
Charles Lovett 

OF BOOKS AND THINGS 
36 

The Dickens You Say! (Part II) 

In a Funk 
Ruth Berman 

How Sweet It Isn 't 
Stephanie Lovett 

Crimson Tidings 
Matt Demakos 

CARROLLIAN NOTSS 

38 

Addenda, Errata, Corrigenda, Cff Illuminata 

The Miller's Tale 

The Sea IS Boiling Hot 

Sic, sic, sic 

Sight Impaired 

A Star-Studded Reading 

Midnight Coiugirl 

FROM OUR FAR-FLUNG 

CORReSPONOeNTS 

40 

Books — A rticles — Cyberspace — A cademia — 

Exhibitions— Performances Noted— Aioards — 

Auctions — Things 




l um^Ln^ ' 



— ^elcome to the new incarnation of the Knight Letterl We have long de- 

\ J^ / scribed it as a "newsletter", but that is a title more appropriate for a 
^£. l^.small group's tidings, and the truth is that in recent years it has been 
growing towards becoming, not quite an academic "journal", but a "maga- 
zine" — and so we shall henceforth refer to it, and hope you will as well. 

In keeping with that, please welcome on board Andrew Ogus, a book de- 
signer by trade, who has revamped the design and will be doing the layout. An- 
drew is a longtime Carrollian and was one of the founding members of the West 
Coast Chapter in 1979. 

Some of the important changes, such as the Table of Contents and more 
prominent headings (and this issue's cover) were suggested by Matt Demakos, 
who may be sharing some editorial duties in the future. 

We have split the contents of this and future issues into two distinct sec- 
tions, both named after the handmade magazines the young Charlie Dodgson 
produced for the amusement of his family. "The Rectory Umbrella" contains 
articles of a scholarly or popular nature, and "Misch-Masch" is a potpourri of 
features. 

Our contributors, other than those credited in bylines, include: Earl Abbe, 
Fran Abeles, Joel Birenbaum, Llisa Demetrios Burstein, Sandor Burstein, An- 
gelica Carpenter, Matt Demakos, Jonathan Handel, August Imholtz, Clare 
Imholtz, Janet Jurist, Devra Kunin, Hugues Lebailly, Charles Lovett, Stephanie 
Lovett, Lucille Posner, Sandra Parker Provenzano, Jenifer Ransom, Mark 
Richards, Andrew Sellon, Alan Tannenbaum, Alison Tannenbaum, Edward Wa- 
keling, Cindy Watter, and Germaine Weaver. 

A few more notes, whilst I have your ears. First, any comments that are [ital- 
icized and enclosed in square brackets] are mine, as are all unsigned articles. Sec- 
ond, punctuation. I personally prefer the more "logical" British rules of punc- 
tuation, according to which the only things inside quotation marks are things 
actually being quoted, in opposition to the American style, which forces all com- 
mas and periods inside of them. I also leave any article submitted by those 
whose allegiance is to the British Crown with their own punctuation and 
spelling. 

I am also deeply indebted to Edward Wakeling for his corrections and com- 
ments, some of which are included within, and some at the end of, various 
items. 

Excelsior!! 



Mark Burstein 










OUR KIND OF TOWN 

Mark Burstein with Joel Birenbaum 



.^^p—a^h, Chicago. "One town that ivon 't let you doivn/ It's 
i^K my kind of razzmatazz" (Sammy Cahn/Jimmy Van 
M. XHeusen), "That toddlin' town, that toddlin' toiun" 
(Fred Fisher), "Stormy, husky, braxuling. City of the Big Shoul- 
ders " (Carl Sandburg) , "And All That Jazz. . . " (Fred Ebb) . 

Friday, April 11"', was a beautiful, sunny day in Aurora, 
Illinois, but some might have wondered why the Maxine 
Schaefer Memorial Reading was being held forty miles 
west of Chicago at Greenman Elementary School, cer- 
tainly not the most convenient location. The dramatic 
reading by Andrew Sellon and Patt Griffin was watched 
with an intensity that was beyond expectations in the 
overly warm room. Sixty-eight fourth grade students hung 
on every word and took in every change of facial expres- 
sion. Then came the time for questions. The first six or 
seven questions dealt with acting, including "Do I recog- 
nize your voice as a character on TV?". The nine of us pres- 
ent exchanged bewildered glances; this had never hap- 
pened at a reading before. It turns out that there is a 
strong drama program at the school and there were more 
than a few would-be actors in the audience. Alan Tannen- 
baum turned the focus back to Alice by asking the ever- 
popular "WTio is your favorite character?" After that there 
were only a few acting questions interspersed among the 
literary, the most thoughtful of which was, "Was the 
Cheshire Cat a spirit? He seems to appear whenever nec- 
essary. Is he there all through the story, invisible?". If 
you're wondering whether Alice is still relevant to fourth 
graders, it clearly is, and at the end of the day, nobody was 
wondering why we were at Greenman School. As I have 
often said, this program is the best thing that the LCSNA 
does and we should all be very proud. -Joel Birenbaum 




^he Windy City certainly lived up to its name for our 
Spring meeting, as a sparkling, pleasant day would 
instantly morph into icy blasts merely by turning a 
corner. However, as Joel had designed the meeting so well, 
this was kept to a minimum. 

The Society met Saturday morning April 12''' at the 
Newberry, a premier research library specializing in the 
"history and culture of western Europe from the Middle 
Ages to the mid-twentieth century and the Americas from 
the time of first contact between Europeans and Native 
Americans". Founded by Walter L. Newberry in 1887 and 
housed in a building completed in 1893, the library, free 
and open to the public, can be virtually visited at \vw\v.new- 
berry.org. Attendees divided into two groups and were 
shown some highlights from their holdings by Joel. Here 
is his report: 

What is the use of having a meeting at the Newberry 
Library if we don't take advantage of their treasures? To 
this end, 1 chose five Carroll items unique to the Newberry 
for viewing. The first item was an 1865 Alice ?ind, oddly 
enough, we had manv members who had never seen one 
close up. I pointed out the printing flaws that caused Ten- 
niel to request that the edition be recalled. The uneven 
printing of illustrations was quite clear: some too light and 
some far too dark. Bleed-through (being able to see the 
printing on the reverse side of a page) was evident on 
pages with extensive white space. It was agreed that Ten- 
niel had reason to be upset. We also saw five original draw- 
ings believed to be by the Dalziel brothers, the engravers 
of the A/?c^ illustrations, and one by Tenniel. [Did you know 
that "Dalziel" is properly pronounced "D.L. "?] The next group 
of items we saw was a presentation copy of The Nursery 

5 




Andreiu Sellon and Pali Grifjin enchant the crowd at the Maxine Schaeffn- reading. (All photos by Alan Tannenbaum.) 



"Alice" ?ind the original woodblocks for the illustrations. 
We talked about the differences between the illustrations 
of The Nursery "Alice" ^.nd those oi Alice's Adventures. The 
former are larger, in color; Alice has a different style of 
dress and is wearing a bow in her hair. I then showed three 
of the illustrations and asked the group to find the same 
printing error in each. At the third one I told them that 
the error was related to Alice. Nobody could see the error. 
I explained the color printing process, which was that a 
base plate was used to print the black outline (same as for 
a black and white illustration), then a separate block was 
used to apply each color. In the three illustrations I 
showed them the hair bow was not present in the base 
block and was only added in the color block. This brings 
up many questions about how much of this process Ten- 
niel was involved with, who did the base plate, and who 
did the color plates. The next major flaw that I found was 
in the "Duchess' Kitchen" illustration. Nobody found this 
one either. Since the illustrations were larger it was neces- 
sary to use multiple pieces of wood to create a single block. 
In the case of the illustration in question, six pieces of 
wood were connected to form the block. There is a very 
light horizontal line on the middle right side of the illus- 
tration caused by a slight separation between the wood 
pieces. After I chastised everyone for not seeing this, I ad- 
mitted that I didn't find it myself until I saw the actual sep- 
aration in the woodblock. The split is much wider now, as 
the wood has warped over the years. The condition of the 
blocks is also why Macmillan has not produced a limited 
edition of The Nursery "Alice" Wxxh illustrations from the 
original woodblocks [as they did with the two canonical books 
in 1988]. -Joel Birenbaum 

Speaking of the City of Big Shoulders, we met for 
lunch at Mike Ditka's, whose namesake owner apparently 
has something to do with a local sports franchise. Lunch 
was quite convivial and surprisingly tasty. 



After bracing ourselves and slogging our way back to 
the Newberry, the meeting began with a welcome from 
our President, Alan Tannenbaum. Charlie Lovett dis- 
cussed the re-formation of the Publications Committee 
(see p. 35) and read a tribute to the late Philip Dodgson 
Jacques (see p. 33). 

The purpose of the Stan Marx Memorial Outreach 
Fund, named for and funded by a founding member of 
our Society and our first President, is to enable us to con- 
tinue to bring into being the kind of exciting and eclectic 
events and adventures that were the hallmark of Stan's ap- 
proach to life. Hence our first speaker, joining the com- 
pany of such previous recipients as Nina Demurova, the 
noted translator of Carroll's works into Russian, and 
William Jay Smith, former Poet Laureate of the U.S., was 
Douglas Hofstadter, Professor of Cognitive Science and 
Computer Science at Indiana University, Director of the 
Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition, and Ad- 
junct Professor of Philosophy, Psychology, History and Phi- 
losophy of Science, and Comparative Literature, whose 
first book, Godel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid, subti- 
tled A Metaphorical Fugue on Minds and Machines in the Spirit 
ofLexvis Carroll, was awarded both the Pulitzer Prize and 
an American Book Award in 1980,' and a favorable review 
by Jon Handel in A7. 15 (March 1981). 

In 1981, as Martin Gardner was retiring his "Mathe- 
matical Games" column in Scientific American, Hofstadter 
began his own feature in that revered space, titling it 
"Metamagical Themas", an anagram of Gardner's title. - 
Among his other works is Le Ton beau de Marot: In Praise of 
the Music of Language,^ which spins off a charming and de- 
ceptively simple sixteenth-century poem and some 88 dif- 
ferent translations of it, into an exhilarating meditation 
on creativity, imagination, constraints, linguistics, life, 
love, and loss. It is structured similarly to GEB, with chap- 
ters consisting of light preludes and deep fugues. (Doug 
had also been kind enough to address the West Coast 




Chapter of our Society in 1981, and portions of that meet- 
ing went out on the BBC World Service.) 

This Stan Marx Lecture was not particularly, in fact 
not at all, about Lewis Carroll. Rather, it was exactly the 
sort of speculation that Dodgson/Carroll, word maven and 
philosopher extraordinaire, would have thoroughly en- 
joyed. Certainly he would have been fascinated by the lin- 
guistic conjectures. Dodgson, of course, also kept up with 
the leading edge of the physics of his day (owning a well- 
read copy of Hinton's The Fourth Dimension; creating the 
gedankenexperimenten in Sylvie and Bruno, etc.). 

Hofstadter's talk, entitled "The Surrealistic Curvature 
of Semantic Space around a Neutron Star", was not nearly 
as frightening as his title. Taken by and large from Chap- 
ter 11 ("Halos, Analogies, Spaces and Blends") o{ Le Ton 
beau de Marot, he began by quoting the passage below. 

A word being the name of a concept, and a concept 
being a class of items linked by analogy, and people 
by nature being creative and ever finding new analo- 
gies, a word's connotations are consequently oozing 
continually outwards to form an ever-larger and blur- 
rier nebula as more and more analogies are recog- 
nized as legitimate and welcomed by the cukure. A 
table thus acquires legs, a mountain acquires a foot, 
ships venture into space, sopranos sing high and 
basses low, books have jackets, families have trees, 
computers have memories, salad is dressed, wine 
breathes, cars run, hearts dance, a storm threatens, 
actors become stars, friends give you a hand, ideas 
bloom and die, hopes soar, hearts melt, Suzi is bub- 
bly, Sami is dull, their marriage crashes, hearts 
break, companies fold, stocks plummet, the Yankees 
cream the Braves, viruses invade PC's, PC's get im- 
munized, critics give feedback, I see your point, sock- 
ets are female, plugs are male, gay couples get mar- 
ried, the H-bomb has a father, all people are men, 
all men are brothers, all brothers are Greeks, Greek 



sisters are cool chicks, cool chicks are good guys, 
words have halos, you get the picture . . . Well, you 
get the picture. Words have halos. 

As we curious little humans explore our awe- 
some universe, we are constantly forced to borrow 
old words to describe new phenomena. 

Language is constantly being str niched. Hofstadter's 
example was taken from the novel Dragon's Egg hy Robert 
L. Forward,^ which was in turn based on an idea by Frank 
Drake," namely, ivhat loould ''life" be like on the crust of a madly 
whirling, superdense, enormously hot neutron star?, where 
there are no atoms, no chemistry, where gravity and elec- 
tromagnetism are not important (the "strong {nuclear) 
force" being omnipotent), and everything moves millions 
of times faster than we do. The novel has characters, civi- 
lization, conversations. But what, fzrfgHumpty Dumpty, do 
the words mean? 

The novel necessarily uses the "homey, familiar 
medium of the English language" to project the reader 
into this extraordinarily alien world. Consequently, words 
get str<?/fhed to their very limits — and perhaps beyond 
them — via metaphor and analogy; primordial issues of 
translatability and comprehensibility necessarily arise 
when two universes of enormous disparity come into in- 
teraction. 

Hofstadter's talk "homed in on the central riddle of 
the novel's language, indeed, the central riddle of the lan- 
guage as a whole: under what circumstances should one 
take a word or phrase devised for one narrow type of situ- 
ation and apply it to other situations that had never been 
dreamt of when it was born, and to which it was never in- 
tended to apply? When is the strain so great that a new 
word must be made up?" 

Mutation and mathematics, Hofstadter says, are of one 
order of str^/ching our language as understood on the 
neutron star, 'music' and 'fast-food' of ?l second order, "ani- 
mals" and "videos" oi' yet a third. Even after one accepts 

7 




L: August and Clare Imhotz; R: Stephanie 
Lovett, Nina Weigl, Andreiu Sellon; Inset: 
Annslnsia Altnerio-Kopp and her parents 



Forward's premise of life among the cheelas, how does one 
understand such word-concepts as "giggle" and "munch"? 

After many mind-stretching (and quite humorously 
delivered) ideas, he left us considering what words might 
mean in a "life-form" which is just patterns of interactions, 
such as the cellular automata found in John Horton Con- 
way's "Game of Life" (described in Martin Gardner's col- 
umn in 1970) and, further, what about using these same 
words to describe phenomena in the spaceless, timeless 
"world" of pure numbers? When or where does their 
amazing flexibility finally come to a halt? 

I'm sure these speculations would have kept Rev. 
Dodgson buzzing until the wee hours. 

Our next speaker was Ruth Berman, authority on, and 
talented author of, fantasy literature. Her talk, entitled 
'' Alice ^s> Fairytale and Non-Fairytale", began "For Carroll, 
it was always obvious that AWand 7XG were fairytales. In 
the formal prefatory poem to TLG he emphasized the 
term by using it three times over . . . Informally, he de- 
scribed the books as fairytales in his diary and letters {e.g., 
June 10, 1864, when he wrote Tom Taylor, T should be 
very glad if you could help me in fixing on a name for my 
fairy-tale,' undeterred by the absence — which he pointed 
out to Taylor — of any fairies in the story.)" Alice herself 
says "When I used to read fairy-tales, I fancied that kind of 
thing never happened, and now here I am in the middle 
of one!" 

On the other hand, Robinson Duckworth termed it 
an "extempore romance", and for a modern reader, the 
term "fantasy" may seem more apt than "fairy tale". That 
sense of the word "fantasy" did not yet exist in Carroll's 
day, but other terms he might have used, besides "ro- 
mance", might have been "adventure", "dream", "vision", 
"tale", "wonder-tale", or "beast-fable". Berman then of- 
fered speculations from various experts, such as J.R.R. 
Tolkien (whose essay "On Fairy-Stories" argued that the 

8 



Alice books, precisely because they were dream-visions, 
could not be fairytales), Roger B. Henkel, Vladimir Propp, 
Frankie Morris, John Docherty, Ronald Reichertz, Bjorn 
Sundmark, and Nina Demurova, all of whom had precise 
qualifications and definitions, often conflicting with each 
other's, for exactly what constituted a "fairy-tale". 

She then speculated that Carroll seemed, at least 
briefly, to have considered using some more traditional 
fairytale characters in AW, of which one proposed title had 
been Alice's Hour in Elf-Land. His own illustrations to Un- 
derground include a drawing of Alice about to open the 
door in a tree, and the foliage is full of hidden faces and 
figures along the lines of Holiday's vanishing Bellman {ms. 
p. 67; see page 43 of this issue). "Most of the images are so 
abstract and sketchy that they might be considered acci- 
dents of shading, except that there are so many of them, 
and a few are considerably more detailed than the rest." 
Berman pointed out on a slide a cat-head and various 
sprites, gnomes, and little men resting among the 
branches, and also showed us some of his possible sources 
for the images, from a photograph of the eight-year-old 
Ellen Terry as a mossy-garlanded Puck in 1856 in A Mid- 
summer Night's Dream to various contemporary lithographs. 
In his later writings, of course, he did write about literal 
fairies in the sprite Sylvie and the elfin Bruno. 

Berman concluded, "For Carroll, the tension between 
fairytale and non-fairytale was fruitful — rather like his own 
description of the perfectly balanced hesitation that pro- 
duces the portmanteau . . . Carroll's delicate balance be- 
tween what was and wasn't fairytale provided one way of 
expanding the realm of wonder." 

George Bodmer, Chair of the English Department 
and Professor of English at Indiana University Northwest, 
gave us our final talk in his fascinating "All Eyes on Dr. 
Rosenbach". Dr. A.S.W. (Abraham Simon Wolf) Rosen- 
bach was the most illustrious book and manuscript dealer 




L: Fml Osl and Harriet Robbins-Ost; R: Dmnd 
Schaeffer; Inset: Doug Hofstadter, Llisa, Martin, 
and Mark Burstein 



in the world during the first half of the twentieth century, 
and set the standard for those to follow. Selling glamour 
along with his "gold standard" material, happily during a 
peak period of redistribution of wealth (largely from 
noble European families to American industrialists), he 
built great collections which often became libraries, such 
as the Widener, Folger, and his own Rosenbach. 

Professor Bodmer took us inside Rosenbach's life, 
from his early childhood enchantment with the world of 
books in his uncle's shop through his collegiate studies 
and the founding of his own company. One wouldn't call 
it his "bookshop" because it was his wise decision to sell 
sizzle along with the steak by inviting prestigious biblio- 
philes to his lavish house, replete with thick rugs, period 
paintings, and an English butler, then plying the guests 
(clients) with whisky (even during Prohibition) and fine 
cigars, and bringing books out from steel-doored vaults in 
gloved hands. 

He was in a strong position when the Underground 
manuscript was offered for sale through Sotheby's by Alice 
Hargreaves in 1928, and he purchased it for $75,259. 
(Bodmer's inspired reading of the breathless recounting 
of the sale from The New York Times was quite fun.) Of 
course, being a dealer, he had to sell it, and the lucky 
buyer was Eldridge R.Johnson of Camden, New Jersey, an 
engineer who had improved the motor in gramophones 
and eventually had become the head of the Victor Talking 
Machine Company (it was his terrier who listened at the 
horn, providing the logo). Selling the company to Radio 
Corporation of America (thenceforth RCA Victor) for a 
cool forty mil provided the needed cash. 



When Johnson's heirs sold the book at auction in 
1946 through the Parke-Bernet Galleries, it was Dr. Rosen- 
bach, then 70, who bought it back — for $50,000. [How did 
it manage to lose 33% of its value! Quite a bargain!] He then 
spearheaded the drive to purchase it for the Library of 
Congress, who would then donate it in the name of the 
American people to the British Library, where it remains 
on display at the British Museum to this day. 

Rosenbach's life was certainly about more than this 
little manuscript, as was Bodmer's talk. You can get an idea 
of the astonishing diversity of Rosenbach's breathtaking 
holdings by visiting the Rosenbach Museum and Library 
in Philadelphia, going virtually to www.rosenbach.org, or 
reading about the Society's visit there in KL 52. 

Lisle is a smallish town about 20 miles west of Chicago, 
home to the fabulous Birenbaum collection and the 
equally fabulous Birenbaums. Joel and Debbie were gra- 
cious hosts to our rowdy group and served up a glorious 
banquet of EatMes and DrinkMes which, along with scin- 
tillating conversation, made for a fine and memorable 
evening. 

''Baby don 't you wanna go / Back to that same old place / 
Siueel home Chicago" (Woody Payne). 

1. Basic Books, 1979, recently reprinted in paperback (see p. 00) 

2. (lollected into book form as Metamagical Themas: Qriestingfor the 
Essence oj Mind and Pattern, Basic Books, 1985 

?,. Basic Books, 1997 

4. Ballantine Books, 1980 

5. Founder of SETI (Search for Extraterrestial Intelligence) Insti- 
tute. Note the subtle tribute in the title as Drake implies Draco 
(L., "dragon"). 






On a walms Train ofThu^kU 
Carrjm a Coujilc of Things Too Many 



Matthew Demakos 



STOP one: on a rail of long dashes 

One of the most famous stanzas Lewis Carroll ever wrote, 
and certainly the most quoted stanza in "The Walrus and 
the Carpenter", contains a reference that escapes readers 
and scholars alike, time after time. After the title charac- 
ters seduce the Oysters and fatten them up with a long 
walk of a mile or so, the Walrus comforts them with the 
following speech: 

'The time has come,' the Walrus said, 

'To talk of many things: 
Of shoes — and ships — and sealing-wax — 

Of cabbages — and kings — 
And why the sea is boiling hot — 

And whether pigs have wings.'' 

Here, Carroll intentionally imitates the style that Vic- 
torian books used for listing a chapter's content. This style, 
placing a long dash between the topics, pervaded the 
books of the era. The style can be seen in many editions 
of Darwin's On the Origin of Specie^ or in the current novel 
Gould's Book of Fish'' by Richard Flanagan, whose book de- 
signer appropriated the typography for the story of 
William Buelow Gould, a real-life English forger in the 
1830s. To illustrate the point, however, Chapter VI of El- 
isha Kent Kane's then-popular book Arctic Explorations* 
(1856) — a book with frequent mentions of walruses but 
which has no bearing on the poem — lists the topics as: 

Closing with the Ice — Refuge Harbor — Dogs — Wal- 
rus — Narwhal — Ice-hills — Beacon-C^airn — Anchored 
to a Berg — Esquimaux Huts — Peter Force Bay.... 

On the first page of each chapter, the books often re- 
peat the chapter topics similarly. With this ubiquity, a Vic- 
torian reader would easily have grasped Carroll's stylistic 
reference, especially with the introduction about "many 
things", and with the last two lines sounding like chapter 
topics in and of themselves ("And why the sea is boiling 
hot — / And whether pigs have wings"). 

But the reference simply flies over the heads of mod- 
ern-day scholars, in the shape, no doubt, of a pig with 
wings. "This old-fashioned list of qucestiones disputatce" 
writes Peter Heath in The Philosopher's Alice,^ "identifies the 
W^alrus as an adherent of scholastic natural philosophy . . . 
or at best as one of those who will some day publish his 
philosophical essays for posterity to leave unread." Per- 
haps so, but since Carroll alludes to a chapter's contents, 
to contemporary readers the stanza could have suggested 
one nonsense essay of many things, not several "essays." 
Likewise, Stephen Leacock, in Last Leaves,'' writes of the 
speech, "Anybody who has ever looked over the thing 



called the agenda of a scientific society, meaning the mix- 
ture of things they propose to talk about, will recognize at 
once the type." Again, perhaps so, but with Carroll's refer- 
ence, the plural "things" more likely refers to the elements 
of one topic. 

Carroll leaves little doubt on the matter, actually. After 
this speech, the oysters immediately cry out, "But wait a 
bit . . . Before we have our chat." Carroll chose the singu- 
lar "chat" and not a plural noun, indicating how he, a Vic- 
torian, read it. 

STOP two: reading railroad 
between the lines 

This stanza — given Carroll's own intentions above — poses 
an unanswered riddle, like Carroll's unanswered riddle 
about a raven and a writing desk." Since Carroll presents 
the lines in the style of a chapter's contents, what chapter 
title could incorporate these "many things"? 

One possible answer could be "Hunting the Walrus." 
Eskimos made shoes and boats from walrus hide. North- 
erners made ship ropes and ship sealant from walrus hide 
and walrus oil. "Ceiling whacks" describes a once-pre- 
ferred way to kill walruses without scarring the hide. Cab- 
bages may refer to "savages," like La Roche ("a rock con- 
veniently low"), who took over the walrus habitat on Sable 
Island in the late 1500s, killing an estimated 50,000 wal- 
ruses in eight years. Walrus tusks were once thought to be 
appropriate gifts for kings. Lastly, as quoted by Farley 
Mowat in his book Sea of Slaughter," one famous early de- 
scription of the walrus, "monsters of the Sea lye like 
Hogges in heapes [upon the beach]," describes their easy 
availability to the hunter. 

There is, however, a more elegant theory, one that 
avoids wordplay and search-and-find coincidence, but one 
just as colorful. The chapter title could be "Things That 
Are Red". The word "red" can easily modify each noun 
(and one adjective) in the list: red ship, red shoes, red 
sealing-wax, red cabbage. Red King, Red Sea, red-hot, red 
pig, and redwing. All nine of these words not only can take 
the adjective but often do, creating a common phrase or 
specific reference. Certainly, the color could modify thou- 
sands of things, many things, but a phrase like "red 
drawer" is not common and has no previous or historical 
meaning. Here, all the main words — a compelling nine 
out of nine — create a known phrase with the color: 

Redship: An obsolete word, meaning "Equipment, 
tackle".' Or perhaps Carroll had in mind the red sails 
on the ship in Wagner's The Flying Dutchman (1843), 



a plot he knew from Edward Fitzball's play seen in 
1856.'" 

"The Red Shoes": A popular Hans Christian Ander- 
sen tale" published about 30 years before Looking- 
Glass. 

Red sealing-wax: The usual color of the wax for se- 
curing envelopes. '- 

Red cabbage: An actual type or category of the veg- 
etable, as opposed to green. 

The Red King: A chess piece and a character appear- 
ing in Looking-Glass. 

The Red Sea: The elongated sea between the Ara- 
bian Peninsula and Africa. 

Red-hot: A common term defined as "heated to red- 
ness."" 

Red pig: An actual breed of pig, as opposed to white 
and black. Columbus brought red pigs to America 
on his second voyage." 

Redwing: A name for several species of birds, for ex- 
ample, "A European thrush Turdus musicus (or T. ili- 

By 1896, the ever-so-cunning Carroll may have even 
offered a clue to the meaning of the list when he directly 
related "many Things" to the color "red" in Symbolic Logic- 
Part I, Elementary.^'' In the very beginning of the text, Car- 
roll defines terms, bracketing his indented explanations, 
as below: 

One Thing may have many Attributes; and one At- 
tribute may belong to many Things. 

[Thus, the Thing "a rose" may have the Attributes 
"red," "scented," "full-blown," &:c.; and the Attribute 
"red" may belong to the Things "a rose," "a brick," 
"a ribbon," &c. ] 

with the "&:c" possibly standing for "a shoe", "a ship", "seal- 
ing-wax", "a cabbage", "a king" .... 

STOP three: whistling by TENNYSON, 
RUSKIN, AND LITTLE RED RIDING HOOD 

The color may simply refer to the Walrus and the Carpen- 
ter's red-side positions in the chess game on which the 
whole of Through the Looking-Glass is based. Or the color 
may simply be Carroll's "favourite color", as he admitted 
to his publisher, for attracting children to his book bind- 
ings.'' But there are at least three grander theories why 
Carroll appropriated the color for "The Walrus and the 
Carpenter". 

First, Carroll could be alluding to nature's cruelty and 
more specifically to "Nature, red in tooth and claw," a line 
from Alfred Lord Tennyson's In Memoriam.'" 

Both works share the theme of science, most signifi- 
cantly, geology, and, as above, nature's incessant cruelty. 
Curiously, the first four stanzas of Carroll's poem — the 
sun, the moon, the sand, and the human — even corre- 
spond with Tennyson's first four stanzas. The opening 
lines of each for In Memoriam begin: 

Strong Son of God, immortal Love (sun)'" 



Thine are those orbs of light and shade (moon) 

Thou wilt not leave us in the dust (sand)-"' 

Thou seemest human and divine (Carpenter) 

This earlier influence on Carroll's poem supports the 
later, more colorful, influence. 

Similarly, Tennyson's opening stanzas may have been 
influenced by Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation 
(1844).-" Five years before the prologue's 1849 date, Ten- 
nyson requested a copy of the book from his publisher, 
and many scholars have noted its influence on certain sec- 
tions of In Memoriam. The first three chapters of Vestiges 
concentrate on the sun, the moon, and the earth, respec- 
tively. By the titles alone, the fourth chapter ("Commence- 
ment of Organic Life — Sea Plants, Corals, &c.") and the 
fifth chapter ("Era of the Old Red Sandstone — Fishes 
abundant") parallel Carroll's fourth and fifth stanzas and 
at least Tennyson's fourth stanza. The controversial book 
about geology and evolution — more sensational than Dar- 
win's On the Origin of Species (1859) fifteen years later — was 
first published anonymously by Robert Chambers. The 
thoroughly revised 10''' edition of 1853 retained the some- 
what realigned chapters of the previous edition and intro- 
duced illustrations selected by a physiologist named — by 
the way — William B. Carpenter.-' 

Carroll expressed high praise for Tennyson's poem. 
He often quoted the work in his letters, albeit after the 
publication of Looking-Glass and, at his suggestion, his sis- 
ters indexed the poem under his editorship for publica- 
tion. In the 1850s, Carroll even photographed Tennyson 
and became friends with his family for a time. But in 
March 1870, while he was writing his sequel to Wonderland, 
the relationship ended sourly, after Carroll requested per- 
mission to read and to show friends an unpublished poem 
by the poet laureate. The timing may suggest a vengeful 
Carroll portraying an overly emotional and often cantan- 
kerous poet in his two characters, but this would probably 
be overanalyzing the poem. Carroll was quite pleased with 
the result of sending Tennyson a "peace-offering" in the 
form of a morocco-bound Looking-Glass, only one of three, 
with the other two saved for Alice Liddell and Florence 
Terry, a sister of the actress Ellen Terry.-' 

But there is another theory about the color being in- 
troduced for its literary value. Like Charles Perrault's in- 
troduction of the color in "Le petit chaperon rouge" ("Little 
Red Riding Hood"), Carroll could be using the color to 
symbolize the Oysters' sin.'^ In both Carroll's poem and 
the fairy tale, the villains ( Wolf and Walrus) meet the vic- 
tims (Little Red and little Oysters) and take them on a 
longer walk than necessary to convenient places (house 
and rock) to be deviously devoured. Like Perrault's "Le 
petit chaperon rouge" (1697), in which the grandmother and 
granddaughter are simply devoured in the end, and un- 
like the Grimms' "Rotkdppchen" (1812), in which they are 
saved by a hunter, Carroll's poem ends abruptly with the 
oysters' being eaten — every one. Indeed, Perrault's 



11 



rhymed moral appearing at the end of the tale, warning 
girls of promiscuity, could equally apply to Carroll's poem. 
The "cabbages and kings" speech can even be equated 
with Red Riding Hood's diversion — picking flowers on the 
way — allowing the Wolf to get to grandmother's before 
her. Also, the eldest Oyster's wise behavior mirrors the 
warning that Red Riding Hood's mother gives the girl not 
to stray from the path, an element in Grimms' version not 
found in Perrault's. 

Besides the allusion to the color in the poem, there 
are a couple of reasons to suppose an intentional influ- 
ence on Carroll. On August 18, 1857, Carroll took a pho- 
tograph of Agnes Weld,-' a niece of Tennyson's, as "Red 
Riding-hood". In his photo album, he inscribed his own 
poem on the facing page in the same stanzaic form as 
"The Walrus and the Carpenter", if with an added rhyme 
on the odd lines: lines: 

Into the wood — the dark, dark wood — 

Forth went the happy Child; 
And, in it's [sic] stillest solitude. 

Talked to herself, and smiled; 
And closer drew the scarlet Hood 

About her ringlets wild. 

Carroll's celestial opening stanzas could have been in- 
spired by the oft-repeated interpretation of "Little Red 
Riding Hood," namely, that the "ravening wolf represents 
night, which "swallows up the evening, with her scarlet 
robe of twilight", as George W. Cox wrote in 1870.-"' Lastly, 
the Grimms' version mentions a woodcutter (a prelimi- 
nary to a Carpenter) and butterflies (one of the two sub- 
stitutions for the Carpenter). 

Though Carroll photographed another girl, Con- 
stance Ellison, as Little Red Riding Hood in 1862, at- 
tended several pantomimes of the folktale in 1874, 1877, 
and 1883, and even drew Isa Bowman as the character in 
1888, the closest he came to the tale while writing "The 
Walrus and the Carpenter" was his admiration for a pic- 
ture of "little Red Riding Hood talking to a sham wolf (a 
scene made up in a drawing-room) by Mrs. Anderson" in 
1868." 

But with the lecture posturing, the color could also al- 
lude to John Ruskin, who often dwelt upon it, and whose 
Volume 111 of Modern Painters consists solely of Part FV, ti- 
tled "Of Many Things". The connection between this title 
and Carroll's poem was first developed by Jo Elwyn Jones 
and J. Francis Gladstone in The Red King's Dream or Lewis 
Carroll in Wonderland (1995).'-" They argue that Ruskin and 
Walter Pater, Oxford's two principal aesthetes, were the 
models for the Walrus and the Carpenter, respectively. 
"The poor Oysters — the undergraduates — were entirely 
consumed after their strenuous courses in aesthetics," they 
write, adding how the students were "foolish to be carried 
away by two eloquent and captivating aesthetes . . .". For 
good measure, they note the word Walrus includes the 
Wal and Rus of Walter and Ruskin, and that the letters of 
Pater dLte within the word Carpenter. 

But their theory can be further supported with the 
stanza's afore-un-mentioned color and Ruskin's infatua- 



tion with it. In 1846, Ruskin claimed "it is not red, but rose 
colour, which is most beautiful . . ." and in 1854, "red is, in 
a delicately gradated state, the loveliest of all pure colours 
. . .". In 1857 he repeatedly spoke of "precious red" and 
"glorious red" in a published speech. Most significantly, 
however, in the whole of the eleventh chapter of Modern 
Painters V'^-' (1860), Ruskin "pursues" — the scholar Eliza- 
beth K. Helsinger's word^" — "a complex of associations 
with the color red" with overly long footnotes in the chap- 
ter that "expand the symbolic meaning...". 

David Barrie wondered "if the frequent use of the 
word 'Rose' in Volume V may even reveal some half-con- 
scious awareness of his growing attachment to [Rose la 
Touche]." He met Rose — a possible redhead as seen by 
Ruskin's artwork — when she was ten and fell in love with 
her when she was thirteen or fourteen." Wolfgang Kemp, 
another Ruskin scholar, describes how Ruskin used the 
preface of the second edition of Sesame and Lilies'"'^ 
(1865) — a volume knowingly written for Rose — to illus- 
trate his love for the girl and to warn her of dangers. In 
the form of a parable, she is represented by a bed of roses 
Ruskin desires to paint. The moral, which ends with a pack 
of schoolboys trampling the bed, would not have been lost 
on Carroll. In another passage, Ruskin even goes as far as 
printing a long paragraph in red ink!" 

Indeed, Ruskin — Franco-German for "red, red-haired"" 
and himself occasionally described as having "rusty" or "red- 
dish" hair'" as well as a face "more red than pale""' — not only 
has a lot to be read for, but heard for as well. He seems to 
have lectured in the same discursive manner as the Walrus. 
Alice Liddell's own mother described for her daughter 
Ruskin's lectures of 1872 as "the wildest kind". She listed the 
many things he spoke about: the art of rowing and danc- 
ing — chemistry — a famine in Persia — England's refusal to 
purchase a Raphael — and the difference between wisdom 
and prudence. Perplexed, she wondered, "How can you 
make out anything of Art in this extraordinary conglomera- 
tion?"'" She eagerly awaited his next lecture. 

A STOP FOR TWEEDLEDUM'S COMMENTARY'" 
With the above in mind, one's appreciation for the stanza 
should be reevaluated. The punctuation, in typography 
suggesting the content of a chapter in a book, indicates 
one mad, nonsense essay, as opposed to several separate es- 
says (a modern interpretation). Despite the plural, the 
style suggests that the many things are related and under 
one topic. Carroll strengthens this supposed relation bril- 
liantly by composing repeated alliterations: shoes — and 
ships and cabbages — and kings, and by stretching out the 
sounds of why . . . ivhether . . . luings. After considering these 
poetic and stylistic touches, the contemporary reader 
would eventually dismiss them, concluding that the items 
mismatch, a theme of the poem itself: sun/night, Wal- 
rus/Carpenter, oysters/hurrying, oysters/feet, cruelty/ 
sympathy. The modern reader comes to the same conclu- 
sion, but without the initial supposition that they should 
match. Carroll may not simply be presenting a list; he may 
be presenting a progression, a progression with hidden. 



12 



and therefore intriguing connections. Regardless, the 
stanza raises the question of how these many things relate 
to one another. 

The stanza is ingenious, both on Carroll's part and on 
the Walrus's. The long dashes instead of commas also in- 
dicate silences the Walrus places between his words. From 
the oysters' point of view, these invisible long dashes be- 
come audible silences. They allow images to be conjured 
up in some supposed future discussion (indeed, a singular 
"chat"), and hence, a false sense of security to build — an- 
other villainous device the Walrus employs.*-' The delivery 
of the lines accentuates an already present air of superfi- 
ciality in the Walrus's words — all talk, no substance; all 
table, no contents — a characteristic closely related to his 
insincerity to come. 

The stanza also contributes to the science theme of 
the poem — astronomy, geology, zoology and now oceanog- 
raphy and zoology again. The last two lines even smack of 
Darwin's relatively new theory of natural selection with an- 
imals (pigs) adapting (wings) due to a changing environ- 
mental condition (warming seas). Later, the poem cli- 
maxes on Nature, a concept that may be colored within 
the words here. The allusion to a chapter in a book only 
strengthens the science theme — the long-dash style being 
most prevalent in nonfiction and scientific works. 

Some may see the speech as a sermon, the Walrus 
preaching to a congregation. Though the Walrus indeed 
holds a bishop's square in Through the Looking-Glass, due to 
Carroll's strict attitude against parodying scripture,^" the 
line The time has comeWith the ecclesiastical rhythm of Thy 
kingdom come — note the prominence of king — and to the al- 
lusion to the Leviathan in Job, must be deemed accidental.^' 

A STOP IN THE WHITE QUEEN's DINING CAR 
Since some may argue that Carroll could not possibly have 
appropriated the color for such varied reasons, the above 
Cliffs-Notes-Vike commentary wisely evaded mention of 
John Ruskin, Alfred Lord Tennyson and Little Red Riding 
Hood, save for an inkling of Tennyson's "Nature, red in 
tooth and claw". Rather than dismiss the theories, how- 
ever, arguing that they cancel each other out — a concept 
some may not be willing to apprehend as logical — it may 
be possible to meld together some of the pieces from all 
three theories, while dragging the remaining scraps out to 
the coincidental curb. For example, perhaps Carroll's 
original tale simply drew the color forth with the writer 
conscious of Tennyson and Perrault's similar use. Perhaps 



the potential vestiges of Ruskin — his tide "of many things", 
his interest in geology, his fascination with the color — 
were mere red herrings. Contrariwise — to quote Twee- 
dledee — perhaps Carroll specifically chose to lampoon 
Ruskin, with the meaning in the color merely a good case 
of serendipity, that mystical device that lifts writers' cre- 
ativity higher than what seems mortally possible. Certainly 
hundreds of possibilities remain, but there is little value in 
outlining them until further evidence comes to light. 

Some may not even believe that Carroll alluded to the 
color in the first place. They may argue that nine out of 
nine isn't so startling an outcome with such a ubiquitous 
adjective as red. To prove the case against this point, let's 
pick nine concrete nouns randomly. Let's collect them 
from the first (say) appearance of such a word in the first 
chapter of Dickens' first nine major works. '^ With a slight 
rearrangement, we get the following unrhymed stanza: 

Of buildings — forests — gentlemen — 
Of parishes — and rays — 
And why the ladies register — 

And whether rooms have homes. 

Certainly some of the above words (regarding "regis- 
ter" as a noun) can take the adjective red. But not many 
are specific types generally known — as in "Red King", "red 
cabbage", "red pigs" — and none seems to be a specific en- 
tity like the "Red Sea" and "red shoes," or a common ani- 
mal such as the "redwing" or a rare word such as "redship." 
And none seems to take the adjective as easily and as ap- 
propriately as "red sealing-wax" and "red-hot". One would 
certainly be hard pressed to associate Dickens' nouns with 
the color as is easily done with Carroll's". 

There are several stops, or stages, on the journey 
mapped out above: the chapter's existence, the chapter's 
theme, and the reason for the chapter's theme. Some 
readers may have enjoyed the full excursion, others may 
have disembarked from the train a stop or two earlier, and 
still others may have enjoyed the scenery, and the com- 
pany, but scoffed at the accommodations. The most satis- 
fied passenger, no doubt, was the White Queen, who, in 
the chapter after the Walrus, admits to believing in "as 
many as six impossible things before breakfast". 

[Matt Demakos has recently completed writing an excellent book, 
The Annotated Walrus, /rom which this has been excerpted and 
modified.] 



1. Lewis C>arroll, Through the Looking-Glass, 
and WJiat Alice Found There (London: 
Macmillan, 1872), pp. 7.5-76. 

2. Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species by 
Means of Natural Selection (New York: The 
Heritage Press, 1963), pp. xxiii-xx\. First 
published in 1859. 

3. Richard Flanagan, Gould !$ Book offish: A 
Novel in Twelve Fish (New York: Cirove 
Press, 2002). 

4. Elisha Kent Kane, Arctic Fxplorations: The 
Second Grinnell Expedition in Search of Sir 



John Franklin, 1853,'54, '55 (Philadelphia: 
Childs & Peterson, 1856), Volume I, p. 
140. 

5. Peter Heath, The Philosopher's Alice (New 
York: St. Martin's Press, 1974), p. 167. 

6. Stephen Leacock, Last Leaves (New York: 
Dodd, Mead & Company, 1945), p. 181. 

7. Martin Gardner, The Antwlated Alice: The 
Definitive Edition (New York: W. W. Norton 
& Company, 2000), p.70. 

8. Farley Mowat, Sea of Slaughter (Shelburne, 
Vt.: Chapters Publishing Ltd., 1996), pp. 



301-325, first publi-shed (Boston: Atlantic 
Monthly Press, 1984), pp. .301-325. 
9. The Oxford English Dictionary, second 

edition, prepared by J. A. Simpson and E. 
S. C. Weiner (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 
1989). 

10. Edward Wakeling, Leiuis Carroll's Diaries: 
The Private JoumaLs of Charles Lutividge 
Dodgson (Luton, Beds: The Lewis Carroll 
Society, 199.3-1999);June 10, 1856. 

11. Jackie Wullschlager, Hans Christian Ander- 
sen: The Life of a Stoiytelkr (New York: 



13 



Alfred A. Knopf, 2001), pp. 258-259. The 
story is from the third Volume of New 
Fairy Stories (Nye Eventyr), published in 
1845. 

12. Encyclopaedia Brilannica (Chicago: Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica, Inc., 1974, rpt. 
1998). Thanks to Eunice and Ron Shana- 
han (http://members.xoom.com/ 
leisurewrite/xmpage.html) for a personal 
e-mail confirming the color red for the 
wax. 

1 3. The Oxford English Dictionary. 

14. William Youatt, TA^ Pig, enlarged and re- 
written by Samuel Sidney (London: 
Routledge, Warne, & Roudedge, 1860). 
The book divides pigs into three cate- 
gories: White Pigs, Black Pigs, and Red 
Pigs. While discussing a technical point in 
The Game of Logic (1886), two of Carroll's 
three examples are "pink is light-red" and 
"some Pigs are pink," leading to the 
unstated conclusion that "some pigs are 
light-red." 

15. The Oxford English Dictionary. 

16. Lewis Carroll, Symbolic Logic, edited with 

annotations and an introduction by 
William Warren Bardey, III (New York: 
Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., 1977), p. 59. 

1 7. Lewis Carroll and the House of Macmillan, 

edited by Morton N. Cohen and Anita 
Gandolfo (New York: Cambridge Univer- 
sity Press, 1987); November 11, 1864; 
October 19, 1878. 

18. Alfred, Lord Tennyson, In Memoriam, 
selected and edited by Robert H. Ross 
(New York: W. W. Norton, 1973), section 
56, p. 35-36. If any Tennyson scholar has 
previously noted the connection between 
the first stanzas of In Memoriam and the 
first chapters of Vestiges, I am unaware of 
it. 

19. In Memoriam, p. 3. Tennyson himself said 
that the opening verse might be read in 
the John 1:5 sense, that is, with a pun on 
Sun/Son: "And the light shineth in dark- 
ness; and the darkness comprehended it 
not." 

20. The sand is introduced in the third stanza 
as "dry as dry," though it comes into play 
in the following two stanzas. 

21. Robert Chambers, Vestiges of the Natural 
History of Creation and Other Evolutionary 
Writings, edited by James A. Secord 
(Chicago: The University of Chicago 
Press, 1994), p. 219. 

22. James A. Secord, Victorian Sensation: The 
Extraordinary Publication, Reception, and 
Secret Authorship of Vestiges of the Natural 
History of Creation (Chicago: The Univer- 
sity of Chicago Press, 2000), pp. 150 and 
511. 

23. Cohen, I..ewis Carroll: A Biography, pp. 260- 
261. The iMters of Lewis Carroll, edited by 
Morton N. Cohen, with the assistance of 
Roger Lancelyn Green (London: Macmil- 



lan, 1979); Mar 3, 7 and 31, 1870 for 
Tennyson's unpublished poem; Dec. 22, 
1871 for "peace-offering." See May 21, 
1875; August 12, 28 (two letters) and 
September 2/? 7, 1894 for quodng In 
Memoriam. 

24. The Trials &' Tribulations of Little Red 
Riding Hood, edited by Jack Zipes (New 
York: Roudedge, rev 1993), pp. 26, 91-93, 
135-138. Charles Perrault's "Le Pedt 
Chaperon Rouge" is from Histoires, ou 
contes du temps passe, avec des moralites: 
Contes de ma mere I'Oye (Paris: Barbin, 
1697) and Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm's 
"Rotkappchen" is from Kinder- und Haus- 
mdrchen, (Berlin: Realschulbuchhand- 
lung, 1812). Scholars believe that Perrault 
appropriated the hat and color for the 
character. 

25. Roger Taylor and Edward Wakeling, Lewis 
Carroll, Photographer. The Princeton Uni- 
versity Library Albums (Princeton: Prince- 
ton University Press, 2002), p. 140. 

26. George W. Cox, The Mystery of the Aryan 
Nations (New York: Kennikat Press, 1969), 
Volume ii, p. 351. The book was originally 
published in 1870, the author "Late of 
Trinity College, Oxford." 

27. Lewis Carroll's Diaries; August 23, 1862; 
January 21, 1874; April 9, 1868; October 
2, 1877; January 9, 1883; August 30, 1888. 

28. Jo Elwyn Jones &J. Francis Gladstone, Tfie 
Red King's Dream or Lewis Carroll in Wonder- 
land (Jonathan Cape, 1995; reprinted 
London: Pimlico, 1996), pp. 263-264. As 
dates were not provided for Ruskin's 
lectures and his exact reladonship with 
Oxford, readers should be cautious of 
Jones and Gladstone's interpretation of 
the poem. Earlier in the book, they argue 
Carroll portrayed Ruskin as Wonderland's 
Gryphon. 

29. John Ruskin, The Works of John Ruskin, 

edited by E. T Cook and Alexander 
Wedderburn, (New York: Longmans, 
Green, 1903-1912), Volumes 4, 6, 16 and 
7. More specifically, the works cited are: 
Modern Painters, Volume II (1846), Part 
III, Section I, Chapter X, paragraph 
marking 7, p. 140. Modern Painters, Vol- 
ume IV (1854), Part V, Chap III, para- 
graph marking 16, p. 62. The Value of 
Drawing: Address to the St. Martin 's School of 
Art (1857), p. 445. Modern Painters, Vol- 
ume V (1860), Part IX, Chapter XI, 
paragraph marking 7, p. 414. 

30. Elizabeth K. Helsinger, Ruskin and the Art 

of the Beholder (Cambridge: Harvard Uni- 
versity Press, 1982), p. 328. 

31. John Ruskin, Modern Painters, abridged 

and edited by David Barrie (New York: 
Alfred A. Knopf, 1987), p. xxxv. 

32. Wolfgang Kemp, The Desire of My Eyes: The 

Life Work of John Ruskin, translated by Jan 
van Heurck (London: Harper Collins, 



1991), pp. 293-295. 

33. Ruskin, The Works of John Ruskin, Volume 18. 

Sesame and Lillies (1865), pp. 26-29. 

34. Henry Harrison, Surnames of the United 

Kingdom; A Concise Etymological Dictionary 
(Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing 
Company, 1969). 6,000 Names for Your 
Baby (New York: Dell, 1983). 

35. James Dearden,yo/in Ruskin: A Life in 

Pictures (Sheffield /England7: Sheffield 
Academic Press, 1999), pp. 4, 5, 9, 46. 
Ruskin's hair color was also described as 
"brown," "light sandy," and "light brown." 

36. John Dixon Hunt, The Wider Sea: A Life of 
John Ruskin (New York: The Viking Press, 

1982), p. 229. Hunt quotes a review from 
the Edinburgh Guardian for November 19 
describing Ruskin's appearance as "more 
red than pale." 

37. Colin Gordon, Beyond the Looking Glass: 
Reflections of Alice and her Family (New 
York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publish- 
ers, 1982), pp. 103-104. Carlyle described 
Ruskin's "Tree Twigs" lecture given on 
April 19, 1861: "The lecture was thought 
to 'break down,' and indeed it quite did 
'as a lecture'; but only did from embarras 
des richesses — a rare case" (see the intro- 
duction to Works, Volume 7, p. lix). The 
Works of John Ruskin, Volume 22 (Lectures 
on Landscape...), pp. 137-149. 
"Tweedledum's Commentary" is a section 
of The Annotated Walrus, the book on 
which this article is based. The section 
delves into the craft of writing narrative 
verse. 

The other villainous device is the Walrus's 
statement: "We cannot do with more than 
four, / To give a hand to each." This 
stricture on the limitation of hands is 
devious for it belies the expected behavior 
of the multitude. 

40. Leivis Carroll: A Biography, Anne Clark, pp. 
117-1 18. The Letters of Lewis Carroll; May 12 
and 20, 1896. 

41 . Carroll, ordained a Deacon, would have 
known the Old Testament words: "He 
maketh the deep to boil like a pot" (Job 
41: 31), the "He" being the leviathan, a 
gigantic sea creature. 

42. The works chosen were Sketches by Boz 
("parish"), Pickwick Papers ("ray"), Olit)er 
Twist ("buildings"), Nicholas Nickleby 
("gentleman"). Old Curiosity Shop 
("home"), Bamaby Rudge ("forest"), 
Christmas Carol ("register"), Martin Chuz- 
zlewit ("lady") and Dombey and Sons 
("room"). 

43. The Annotated Alice, p. 199. 



38 



39 



14 






^^e^ ^icorru^i6/e^ Ginxofi/ 



Kate Lyon 



Now the low beams, with paper garlands hung, 
In memory of some village Youth, or Maid, 
Draw the soft tear, for thrill'd remembrance sprung, 
How oft my childhood mark'd the tribute paid! 
The gloves, suspended by the garlands' side. 
White as its snowy flowers, with ribbands tied; — 
Dear Village, long these wreaths funereal spread. 
Simple memorials of thy early dead! 

—Anna Seward ( lygz), "Eyam" 

Mnna Seward, the Romantic poet, wrote the above 
lines when describing the church in her native vil- 
lage of Eyam. The garlands she describes were 
those which were hung in country churches to commemo- 
rate the deaths of the youth of the parish — the 'golden 
lads and lasses' who succumbed to the various diseases 
which were rife at the time. Shakespeare referred to these 
garlands as "crants": in Hamlet, Act V, Scene 1, Ophelia is 
'allowed her virgin crants'. The word 'crants' is etymologi- 
cally associated with Dutch krans and German kranz, both 
meaning a coronet or garland. 

Sylvie was arranging some letters on a board — 
E-V-I-L. "Now, Bruno," she said, "what does that 
spelir 

Bruno looked at it, in solemn silence, for a 
minute. "I knows what it ^0^5??'^ spell!" he said at last. 

"That's no good," said Sylvie. "What does it spell?" 

Bruno took another look at the mysterious letters. 

"WTiy, it's 'LIVE', backwards!" he exclaimed. 

— "Bruno 's Lessons, " Sylvie and Bruno Concluded} 

EVIL is LIVE spelled backwards, says Bruno. Equally, 
the Dutch word krans, from which the word crants derives, 
forms the word Snark when spelled backwards. The idea, 
however, warrants substantially more investigation, and 
such an investigation forms the substance of this article. 

THE FUNERARY WREATH (CRANTS) 
Maidens' Garlands, also known as Virgins' Crowns or 
Crants . . . are a funerary memento. At the funeral proces- 
sion, they were either carried before the coffin or placed 
upon it. In some parts of the country the garland was 
placed on the grave; and in other parts it was hung in a 
prominent position inside the church. It is unclear 
whether or not the person for whom it was made had to 
be female or betrothed; but it would appear that they 
marked the tragic death of a young person. ' 

Carroll wrote the last line of The Hunting of the Snark 
in July 1874, after he had left the bedside of his young god- 
son, Charlie Wilcox, who was dying of tuberculosis. Char- 
lie died on 10 November 1874, just 22 years of age. 



'From the cross-beams of the Church are suspended 
some funeral garlands, which it was the custom — 
now obsolete here — to deposit on the burial of 
young maidens, in accordance with a practice thus 
noticed by Washington Irving, as prevalent in re- 
mote villages. "A chaplet of white flowers is borne 
before the corpse by a young girl, nearest in size, 
age, and resemblance, and is afterwards hung up in 
the church. These chaplets are sometimes made of 
white paper in imitation of flowers, and inside of 
them is generally a pair of gloves. They are intended 
as emblems of the purity of the deceased, and the 
crown of glory which she has received in heaven."' 

The Rev. Tyack, in Lore and Legend of the English Church, 
explains that such crants 'using the German word for 
crown' were still to be seen in country churches, even as 
late as the last decade of the nineteenth century and he 
quotes from White's Antiquities ofSelbourne, saying that: 

I remember when its [Selbourne's] beams were 
hung with garlands in honour of young women of 
the parish, reputed to have died virgins: and recol- 
lect to have seen the clerk's wife cutting, in white 
paper, the resemblance of gloves, and ribbons to be 
twisted in knots and roses, to decorate these memo- 
rials of chastity.' 

The garlands were still to be seen in Victorian times 
and are still to be seen today in some churches, dusty and 
faded, hanging from the beams. In the interior of the gar- 
land hung an hourglass, or more often a pair of white 
gloves, with the name of the deceased written on them. 
Tyack continues: 

There are many references to these garlands, or 
crowns as they might be more accurately called, in 
our poets. Gay says: 

"To her sweet memory flow'ry garlands strung. 
On her empty seat aloft were hung." 

THE WREATH AS EASTER SYMBOL 
Tyack says that it was also customary to decorate graves 
with such garlands, 'Easter Day, with its message of hope, 
is generally marked by a special offering laid on all of 
them.' 

In Figure 2, we can see the Bonnetmaker, busily en- 
gaged in fashioning a headdress. The way it is positioned 
in his hands, together with the falling ribbons, and the 
decoration around the rim, give it the likeness of a wreath, 
or a crants. The gloves which normally appear within the 
crants are, in fact, now associated with the pure-spirited 
Butcher, who eventuallv divorces himself from the rest of 



15 



the crew hunting the Snark, 
and ventures into the "Valley 
of the Shadow" with the 
Beaver. 

The Bonnetmaker's cre- 
ation can be enriched 
through association also with 
the Easter bonnet, as the 
poem was eventually sched- 
uled to appear at Easter/' and 
originated from the same 
concept of the crown of vic- 
tory. The circle expressed the 
sun and its course through 
the heavens, which brought it 
back for the return of spring, 
and the victory over the dark- 
ness and apparent hopeless- 
ness of winter. Carroll, of 
course, also links Easter with the sun: 

This Easter sun will rise on you, dear 
child, "feeling your life in every limb," 
and eager to rush out into the fresh 
morning air — and many an Easter-day 
will come and go, before it finds you 
feeble and grey-headed, creeping 
wearily out to bask once more in the 
sunlight — but it is good, even now, to 
think sometimes of that great morning 
when "the Sun of righteousness" shall 
"arise with healing in his wings". 

An Easter Greeting to Every Child 
Wlio Loves "Alice" 




Figure i: Funerary cranls in Holy Trinity Church, Minsterly, Shropshire. 
Ike caption on the postcard reads "Virgins' Crowns. " 




Figure 2: the Bonnetmaker 



THE WREATH AS SYMBOL OF VICTORY 
The wreath represented the reward which the pure could 
hope to receive in the next life, referred to in Corinthians 
as 'the incorruptible crown.' For Charlie, as for many oth- 
ers who died in their youth, this heavenly crown would be 
their only reward, prevented, as they were, from any 
earthly achievements. 

Know ye not that they which run in a race run all, but 
one receive th the prize? So run, that ye may obtain. 
And every man that striveth for the mastery is 
temperate in all things. Now they do it to obtain a 
corruptible crown; but we an incorruptible. 

Corinthians 1 , 9:-24-25 

These verses from the first book of Corinthians can 
be shown to be important to Charles Dodgson. It may even 
be said that within chapter nine was contained his raison 
d'etre — a creed which he constantly strived to incorporate 
within his daily life. Just how important St Paul's words 
were to him is evidenced within his diary entries. 

On 22 July, 1862, Dodgson records that "God grant that 
this may be the last such entry I may have to make! That so 
I may not, when I have preached to others, be myself a cast- 
away."' These last words appear within the same chapter of 



Corinthians almost immedi- 
ately following the above 
verses: "But I keep under my 
body, and bring it into subjec- 
tion: lest that by any means, 
when I have preached to oth- 
ers, I myself should be a cast- 
away." (Corinthians 1, 9:27) 

On July 10, 1866, Dodg- 
son writes in his diary the 
entry "My heart is very heavy: 
I resolve to pray but seem to 
beat the air...". Once again, 
the words are those of Paul, "I 
therefore so run, not as un- 
certainly; so fight I, not as one 
that beateth the air." [inconsis- 
tent punctuation] (Corinthi- 
ans 1,9:26) 
The crown awarded to the victor in the 
race was not the crown of kingship, but the 
wreath of laurel, although the victor in the 
Olympic Games wore a wreath of wild 
olives. Laurel was Daphne, the symbol of 
metamorphosis. The mythological Daphne 
was the virginal nymph who, determined 
to retain her virginity, rejected the ad- 
vances of Apollo, and was transformed into 
the laurel, or bay tree. For a time after her 
transformation, her voice could be heard, 
singing amongst the leaves, asking that she 
be made a symbol of love everlasting. 
Apollo, in his sorrow, promised to wear a 
wreath of bay leaves rather than the oak, 
and vowed that he would smile upon those who followed 
his example. The ultimate victory is Daphne's, the virgin 
maiden transformed into the living laurel and the spring- 
green leaves of regeneration. This same idea is epitomised 
within the closing lines of Corinthians, Chapter 9 — the 
emphasis on the need to 'keep under the body' to ensure 
the laurel wreath of victory, the incorruptible crown of 
eternal life. 

It is the pure and chaste, in the form of a child, clad 
in "garment undefiled" who proves the salvation in Dodg- 
son's poem Stolen Waters, written in 1862, which celebrates 
the innocence of childhood. It is the child who reminds 
him of the garland still to be won, whose silent presence 
turns him away from the path of folly and inspires him to 
seek "The garland waiting for my broiu, That must be won with 
tears, With pain — with death — / care not how. " 

WREATH AND CROWN SYMBOLISM 

WITHIN Carroll's works 

Within a marble hall a river ran — 

A living tide, half muslin and half cloth: 

And here one mourned a broken wreath or fan. 

Yet swallowed down her wrath; 



II 

Empress of Art, for thee I twine 
This wreath with all too slender skill. 
Forgive my Muse each halting line, 
And for the deed accept the will! 

Both these extracts are from Carroll's Four Riddles — 
the first stanza being written for some young friends, and 
the last four lines [II] inspired by seeing Ellen Terry per- 
form in Hamlet. 

However, there can be no comparison between these 
lines, and their passing mention of the wreath, and his 
haunting poetry of the 1860s 

"Be as a child — 
So shall Ihou sing for very joy of breath — 

So shall Ihou wail Ihy dying, 

In holy transport lying — 
So pass rejoicing through Ihe gate of death, 
In garment undefiled. " 

Then call me what they will, I know 

That now my soul is glad: 
If this be madness, better so. 

Far better to be mad, 
Weeping or smiling as I go. 

For if I weep, it is that now 

I see how deep a loss is mine, 
And feel how brightly round my brow 

The coronal might shine. 
Had I but kept mine early vow: 

And if I smile, it is that now 
I see the promise of the years — 
The garland waiting for my brow, 
That must be won with tears. 
With pain — with death — I care not how. 

Stolen Waters [May g, 1862] 

Carroll has used the idea of the crown or wreath twice 
here — once in the word 'coronal' and a few lines later 
when he speaks of the 'garland waiting for my brow'. He 
appears to be saying that, no matter what the cost, he 
means to earn the imperishable crown. The only way, he 
says, is to become as a child, pure and innocent, and "pass 
rejoicing through the gate of death, in garment unde- 
filed". 

That the theme of the coronal and the imperishable 
crown was not unknown to Carroll's contemporaries is evi- 
denced here, in the poem by R. F. Murray, [cf. CL. Dodg- 
son, below] 

The Croivn of Years 
Years grow and gather — each a gem 
Lustrous with laughter and with tears. 
And cunning Time a crown of years 
Contrives for her who weareth them. 
No chance can snatch this diadem, 
It trembles not with hopes or fears. 
It shines before the rose appears. 
And when the leaves forsake her stem. 
Time sets his jewels one by one. 



Then wherefore moiirn the wreaths that lie 
In attic chambers of the past? 
They withered ere the day was done. 
This coronal will never die, 
Nor shall you lose it at the last. 

The theme of the withered wreath is also used within 
Carroll's poetry, as in these examples: 

The race is o'er I might have run: 
The deeds are past I might have done; 
And sere the wreath I might have won. 

Faces in the Fire [January, i860] 

In Wonderland, he uses the symbol again. 

Alice! a childish story take, 

And with a gentle hand 
Lay it where Childhood's dreams are twined 

In Memory's mystic band, 
Like pilgrim's wither'd wreath of flowers 

Pluck'd in a far-off land. 

The garland symbolises the final victory, the overcom- 
ing of the trials faced by the pilgrim on his difficult jour- 
ney through life. 

The white stone or cross, the palm branch and the 
crown, or wreath of victory, were interchangeable 
symbols of the victor, the pilgrim who has overcome 
adversity at the end of the journey, and gained spiri- 
tual sustenance along the way by stopping at the 
smaller markers which marked the spiritual and 
physical stages of the journey.'' 

Palm Sunday in some areas was called Flowering Sun- 
day, when flowers and greenery decorated the graves. 
When the triumphant Christ entered Jerusalem, the 
crowd strewed the way with palm branches and leaves 
(John xii 12-19). Historically, a consecrated palm-branch 
was given to a palmer, the pilgrim who had reached the 
Holy Land. He carried the palm-branch back to his home- 
land, and laid it upon the altar of his parish church both 
as a reminder of Christ's triumph and as a reminder of the 
palmer's own personal victory. On Palm Sunday, faithful 
Catholics still receive a palm leaf/branch, which is kept by 
the crucifix to inspire devotion until the following year.*"- 
In Through the Looking-Glass, Alice is awarded the 
crown — not a wreath which may fade, but a crown made 
of gold. Tertullian explains the significance in the follow- 
ing passage, an extract from De Corona ['On the Gar- 
land'], a version of which was translated by Charles Dodg- 
son Snr. for the Library of the Church Fathers.7 

Keep for God His own property untainted; He will 
crown it if He choose. Nay, then. He does even 
choose. He calls us to it. To him who conquers He 
says, "I will give a crown of life." Be you, too, faithful 
unto death, and fight you, too, the good fight, whose 
crown the apostle feels so jusdy confident has been 
laid up for him. The angel also, as he goes forth on 
a white horse, conquering and to conquer, receives 
a crown of victory; and another is adorned with an 
encircling rainbow (as it were in its fair colours) — a 



17 



celestial meadow. In like manner, the elders sit 
crowned around, crowned too with a crown of gold, 
and the Son of Man Himself flashes out above the 
clouds. If such are the appearances in the vision of 
the seer, of what sort will be the realities in the ac- 
tual manifestation? Look at those crowns. Inhale 
those odours. Why condemn you to a little chaplet, 
or a twisted headband, the brow which has been des- 
tined for a diadem? For Christ Jesus has made 
us even kings to God and His Father. WTiat have you 
in common with the flower which is 
to die? 
"What have you in common with the flower 
which is to die?" asks TertuUian. Surely we 
should strive to attain a crown which is not of 
the temporal? The answer, of course, lies in 
the pursuit of the incorruptible crown of 
Paul — "they do it to obtain a corruptible 
crown; but we an incorruptible." 

A wreath of laurel, or oak, will fade and 
perish, but a coronal of gold, awarded in the 
life hereafter, will never fade. That the 
wreath is awarded when judgement is passed 
upon us, at the end of our earthly life, is re- 
flected in the proximity of the wreath in the il- 
lustration [Fig. 2] to the set of scales. This implies a 
connection between the two, probably the 
judgement when deeds are weighed in the bal- 
ance and the reward of eternal life given to 
those who have retained their purity in thought, 
word and deed. 

"Do not fear any of those things which you are about 
to suffer. Indeed, the devil is about to throw some of 
you into prison, that you may be tested, and you will 
have tribulation ten days. Be faithful until death, and 
I will give you the crown of life. [Revelation 2:10] 

"He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says 
to the churches. To him who overcomes I will give 
some of the hidden manna to eat. And I will give him 
a white stone, and on the stone a new name written 
which no one knows except him who receives it." 

[Revelation 2:15-17] 

The Baker, in the Snark — has totally forgotten his 
name. Is this what he is seeking — a new name? Sadly, his 
search is doomed to end in vain, as he has mistaken the 
object of his search. 

In the Snark, the Baker explains that 

I engage with the Snark — every night after dark — 

In a dreamy delirious fight: 
I serve it with greens in those shadowy scenes, 

And I use it for striking a light: 

Coronas were, and still are, a brand of matches, and 
the corolla (little crown) is also part of a plant — as in the 




Figure 5. Alice Liddell with 
garland, by C. L. Dodgson, 
i860. 



brassica family, which includes broccoli, cauliflower, mus- 
tard and cress ["They roused him with mustard and 
cress."] The corolla (from the Latin corona) has four petals 
which form a cross, giving rise to the term cruciferous for 
this particular botanical family. In this same family too is 
alyssum maritima — the little plant known as Sweet Alice. 
One is reminded of Carroll's photograph of little Alice 
Liddell complete with crown or wreath of flowers, perhaps 
an iconographic pun!*^' 

KRANS . . . SNARK 

There is a particularly Carrollian twist to a fur- 
ther meaning of the word krans in the last stan- 
zas of "Fit the Eighth — The Vanishing". The 
Baker disappears in pursuit of the Snark, and 
is espied "On the top of a neighbouring 
crag." In Afrikaans, the word krans means a 
crag." The Baker has, indeed, found his 
SNARK, and he remains, poised upon it for 
a brief moment, before plunging headlong 
into the chasm. The krans remains a crag, 
until the falling Baker reaches the point at 
which the crag becomes a chasm, and he is 
heard crying, "It's a Boo — ", as the krans (or 
Snark) transforms itself. In Through the Looking- 
Glass, Alice wrestled with a similar dilemma — how 
could one decide when a hill became a val- 
ley? The very idea was nonsensical. 

Alice didn't dare to argue the point, but 

went on: "And I thought I'd try and find 

my way to the top of that hill — " 

"When you say 'hill,' " the Queen interrupted, 

"I could show you hills, in comparison with which 

you'd call that a valley." 

"No, I shouldn't," said Alice, surprised into con- 
tradicting her at last: "a hill can't be a valley, you 
know. That would be nonsense — " 

The Red Queen shook her head. "You may call 
it 'nonsense' if you like," she said, "but I've heard 
nonsense, compared with which that would be as 
sensible as a dictionary!" 

The Snark has become a Boojum, exactly as Lewis Car- 
roll had explained. 

In his letter to Mary Barber, of January 12, 1897, Car- 
roll writes: 

In answer to your question, "What did you mean the 
Snark was?" will you tell your friend that I meant the 
Snark was a Boojum . I trust that she and you will now 
feel quite satisfied and happy.'' 

Non-sense, then, is not all it appears to be. 




18 



1. Macmillan, 1893 

2. This extract and the accompanying pho- 
tograph of funerary garlands at 'Holy 
Trinity', Minsterly, Shropshire, included 
with kind permission of R. Morris, who 
completed a dissertation on the"History 
and Development of Maidens Garlands 
within the context of English Fimeral 
Practice c. 1600-1973". www.dave.morrislV. 
btinternet.co.uk/index.htm. 

3. Bemroses ' Guide to Matlock, Bakewell, 
Chatswmth, Haddon Hall, &c by John 
Hicklin, Third Edition, Bemrose and 
Sons, London (no date, but about 1869) 

4. Tyack, Rev. G. S. Lore and Legend of the 



English Church. London: William Andres & 
Co. 1899. 

5. Cohen, M. Lewis Carroll. A Biography. 
London: Macmillan. 1995. 

6. Lyon, K.C., The White Stone. Knight Letter 
68. Spring, 2002. LCSNA 

7. Tertullian. De Corona, www.tertullian. 
org/works/de_corona.htm. 

8. "Krans, n. S. Air. a precipitous or over- 
hanging wall of rocks. Afrik. f. Du. Krans 
coronet." The Oxford English Reference 
Dictionary, Oxford University Press 1996 

9. Carroll, L. Cohen, M. [Ed.] The Selected 
Letters of Lewis Carroll. London: Macmil- 
lan. 1982. 



Notes from Edward Wakeling: 

El. The Snark was eventually scheduled to be 

published on 1 April rather than Easter. It 

actually came out a litde earlier than this. 

Easter day varies considerably between 

mid-March and late-April. 
E2. A palm-leaf folded into the shape of a 

cross is also used in Protestant churches. 
E3. The photograph of Alice wreathed is also 

titled "Queen of the May" — it's not an 

iconographic pun. 



Vanody^ Vamiy, and Tanadox in ''Will You Walk a LittL^ Tasren?" 



Chloe Nichols 



Being interested in the sources of Lewis Carroll's parodies, 
I was naturally fascinated with Will Brooker's fine letter 
published in the Autumn 2002 issue of The Carrollian 
about the line, "We'll wander through the wide world / 
And chase the buffalo." The words were found penciled 
on a wooden block, apparently part of a cache of child- 
hood tokens, found under the flooring of the nursery at 
Croft. Brooker believes it casts light on the significance of 
buffalo to Carroll throughout his life. Brooker is likely 
rightabout his affinity for the animal, although, since his 
source puts them in the "wild woods", not the "wild world", 
they may be the Plains Bison's forest-loving cousin, the 
Woods Bison. 

Whichever branch of the family they represent, these 
massive, shaggy, yet somehow — in the ruminant way — 
whimsical beasts have a fey/funky/stupid/devil-may-care 
quality impossible to convey completely. Bigger and heav- 
ier than any other North American mammal, intransient 
buffalo wisely spend much of the daylight hours lying 
down. To see a resting family of them roust themselves to- 
gether in a snowy field is like watching little hills break 
camp. Americans have often felt their charm. Fenimore 
Cooper glorified them, and William Cullen Bryant used 
them as a personification of the wild prairies. Nobel laure- 
ate Heinrich Boll doubtless expresses its full meaning 
when mourning the death of the old sources of poetry, 
"For the poetry of water and wind, of buffalo and grass, in 
which . . . life found its form, there was only scorn — and 
now we civilised Westerners. . . are beginning to sense just 
how real the poetry of water and wind actually is, and what 
is incarnated therein." 

As a symbol, it was confusing when the buffalo became 
attached — by Native American tribes — to African-Ameri- 
can troops, usually cavalry. To the womenfolk, it became 
symbolic of military bravery, toughness. 

Brooker suggests that the words found on Carroll's 
chip were probably taken from a fragment of an Ameri- 



can folk song. The buffaloes in the song are woods 
dwellers, probably bison, but the two terms were often 
confused. The section he quotes, however, has greater sig- 
nificance: 

Come all you young fellows 

That have a mind to range. 

Into some foreign country 

Your station for to change, 

Into some foreign country 

Away from home to go, 

We lay down on the banks 

Of the pleasant Ohio, 

We'll wander through the wild woods 

And we'll chase the buffalo. 

However, in this instance the bigger picture of the 
song's overall intent seems more important than buffaloes 
for their own sake. In fact, Carroll does not have so very 
many buffaloes — one in a logic puzzle, one in S&'B ("The 
Mad Gardener's Song"), one in AW ("A-Sitting on a 
Gate"). Three occurrences within a prolific cannon do not 
seem effusive. It is less demonstrable, but perhaps more 
apropos, to say that the plot of the song is a quick precis 
of the plot of AWand, in fact, TLG to a considerable ex- 
tent. Those who have a mind to range (Alice) into a for- 
eign country begin the journey by "laying down on the 
banks" — the famous picnic. "Pleasant", a variation of 
Alice's middle name, Pleasance, may have made a kind of 
connection for him. In both narratives, Alice does wander 
through wild woods which are also a new "wide world", 
and the epiphany which she finally gains there is perilous 
and dramatic enough to be symbolized by a buffalo — a 
beast of the ideal. 

Such ideal beasts, like Melville's, were common 
enough in British and American literature of this period 
and the period prior, and, of course, unicorns and white 
elephants also come to mind in this context. It is also help- 



19 



fill to remember here the many formal, pre-arranged 
chases of fabulous beasts, Jabberwocks, which occur in 
Carroll's texts. Yet it is fanciful and inaccurate, probably, 
to imagine that these lines from the folk song represent 
any specific, deeply embraced intention. Doubtless, Car- 
roll's work would have developed as it did if he had never 
heard that song. But then, serendipitous intersections be- 
tween poetry randomly encountered, and a profound as- 
piration, do take place for everybody from time to time. If 
they had taken place for Carroll, doubtless they would not 
have been discarded. If these lines articulated a boy's pre- 
cocious apprehension of the form his adult genius would 
follow, it would not be surprising. 

In tracing the penciled memento, "We'll wander 
through the wide world / And chase the buffalo," to an 
American folk song, Brooker is almost certainly right, but 
he is mistaken to discount the famous pencil-inscribed 
block of wood — young Dodgson's "buffalo chip" — as 
merely derivative because it comes from such a source. 
Modern poets, among them Yeats, have spun plenty of this 
straw into very fine gold. 

Brooker is also outside the mark when he calls the 
1862 minstrel performance lyrics of "Sally Come Up" "folk 
music of this kind", that is, a folk song broadly rooted into 
a culture. Such comically-intentioned stereotypic and sys- 
tematic denigrations of African-Americans do not employ 
the same motifs as folk songs, which are seldom con- 
sciously satiric. Rather, minstrel songs were specifically and 
recently written for preconceived performance. "Sally 
Come Up" is much like "Lubly Fan", from which "Buffalo 
Gals" and other spin-offs are derived. The title refers to a 
city. Both songs are unkind parodies of chivalric love 
songs, "uglifying" the black woman of the song. From 
"Sally Come Up" by T. Ramsey (1862), we get: 

Dar was dat lubly gal. Miss Fan, 
Wid a face as broad as a frying-pan; 
But Sally's is as broad again, 

Dar's not a face like Sally's! 
She's got a foot 
To full out de boot. 
So broad, so long, as a gum-tree root. 

Such a foot has Sally! 

Of course, "Sally Come Up" is the source of "Salmon 
Come Up", the original version of the song and dance 
which the Griffin and the Mock Turtle perform for Alice 
in Alice's Adventures under Ground. Carroll had seen the Lid- 
dell sisters perform the song and dance "with great spirit" 
the evening before the famous picnic (Gardner). 

The refrain is: 

Sally come up! oh, Sally go down! 
Oh, Sally come t\vist you heel around, 
De old man he's gone down to town. 
Oh Sally come down de middle. 

"Sally Come Up", though its refrain is innocent, would 
not have been accepted broadly by either American or 
British culture, as a folk song must be. It would have raised 
abolitionist objections. Incidentally, such songs, comically 



depicting the black woman as unattractive, were probably 
part of the larger stereotypic system intended to discour- 
age mixed racial breeding. "Sally Come Up" tells a very 
ugly little story demeaning Africans merely because they 
are enslaved. In it, a plantation's slaves suddenly find 
themselves without a master's hand, and cavort like musi- 
cal chimpanzees through the figures of their version of ball- 
room dancing. The racial stereotypes are quite animalistic. 

Of course, in AAuG, the Mock Turtle and the Gry- 
phon sing "Salmon Come Up", based on "Sally Come Up", 
which was abandoned and replaced by "Will You Walk a 
Little Faster", based on Mary Howitt's "The Spider and the 
Fly" — a wise substitution — in the published AW. This move 
shows that Carroll used delicate care in selecting the ma- 
terials he intended to parody, and by implication, the im- 
portance he placed on the parodic process. 

No parodic structure of his exceeds the power of this 
one. In the encounter with the Gryphon and Mock Turtle, 
a meditation upon the end of life which uses prominent 
foil devices, Howitt's poem and its parody, "Will You Walk" 
become the articulation of alternate views of death. 
Howitt's didactic, moralistic view has the individual soul 
(the fly) bringing on its own death by surrendering to the 
temptations of the flesh (the couch), greed (the feast), 
and vanity (the mirror) cunningly proffered by death (the 
spider). On the other hand, the parody gives a Darwinian 
food-chain version — lobsters obeying the voice of nature 
by throwing smaller creatures into the sea (death) so dif- 
ferent from the land (ordinary life) that "you can really 
have no notion" what it contains. The dance itself ex- 
presses the exuberant natural energy of the biosphere — 
there at the very edge of land — but it uncompromisingly 
holds out the far shore, nevertheless. "The further off 
from England, the nearer is to France." In the mad caper 
on the sea shingle, there is a forecast of the bedlam of ap- 
petite and ingestion of the closing scene of TLG. It is also, 
significantly, a distinct echo of the frantic, dehumanized 
dance which compels those masterless slaves of "Sally 
Come Up". Further, ironically, the "Sally Come Up" dance 
is also a courting ritual, so that regeneration, though at a 
near-bestial level, is also lightly implied. 

Thematic considerations aside, the parodic structure 
embedding small narratives into the main one is fascinat- 
ing here. What we have is a sort of three-cornered con- 
struct which is complete as a threesome, but far less whole 
if only two of its corners are present. Howitt's poem is like 
"Will You Walk" in theme, but far from it in plot. Although 
the motif in each case is a dialog of seduction, the aims of 
the seduction are not foils. The hesitant snail will pass 
among a frantic mob from one natural element to an- 
other; the fly will die alone. Though contrast exists, it is 
not pronounced enough to be called juxtaposition. Now, 
"Sally Come Up" — and its derivative "Salmon Come Up" — 
is like "Will You Walk" in plot content (similar dances), 
but unlike it in theme. A masterless jubilation of slaves 
which ends in courtship, though potentially profound, is 
no alternative to the wildly-charged excitement of a dance 
of initiation along the line where one cosmos encounters 



20 



another. (Yet when it resonates with Darwinian models, 
the effect is fascinating.) 

Finally, if the parody structure is executed effec- 
tively — and it certainly generates the experience of artistic 
satisfaction — it is because Carroll has added a new dimen- 
sion by tvirning a line of two terminal points (the object 
and its parody) into a triangle of three such points. Like 
any triangle, it has a most stable structure. But then, it has 
a difficult function. It must support, in a childlike mind, a 
highly sophisticated concept: that death is inevitable and 
terrible, but that our natures instinctively celebrate it as 
the entrance to new life. This is a profound concept, with 
the Socratic irony which establishes a truth by paradox, as- 
serting at once opposite, mutually negating propositions. 
It is the parodic process, gone exponential. It may be that 
the three-point construction I have described is necessary 
to attain such a kernel of meaning. In this sense, we can 
separate the points of the triangle into something linear: 



Title 
Plot 
Outcome 



"Spider 
and Fly" 

Death 
struggle 

Being eaten 



"Sally 
Come Up" 

pointless 
dance 

Courting 



"Will You 
Walk" 

/dance of 
death 

regeneration 



Thus, "Will You Walk" takes its plot elements from 
both retained and discarded sources. In fact, "Sally Come 
Up" has not been wholly lost, only implanted more deeply 
into the whole. The effect of "Will You Walk" is a combi- 
nation of both of the other songs, as well. 

All this suggests that, for Carroll, parody is not an ei- 
ther/or construction, or one lightly overlaid upon a work 



already intact. It neither displaces nor foregrounds the 
original song and its meaning, but rather re-encodes and 
deeply incorporates that double meaning, and might even 
go on to repeat the process. In the encounter with the folk 
song which Brooker examines, it is very clear that even as 
a child Dodgson's mind tended to the "portmanteau" 
method of conflation of terms; "wild wood" and "wide 
world" become the same thing, yet remain separate. 
Alice's wide world remains also her wild wood. Carroll, like 
the White Knight, never discards what he can somehow 
recycle. He is the champion of "shattering into bits" as a 
prelude to "remolding closer to the heart's desire". He has 
a reluctance to abandon any narrative elements, no mat- 
ter how difficult-to-adapt, once they have been embraced. 
Having declared as a child that he would chase the buf- 
falo, he did it all his life. (Yet, the buffalo must be pre- 
pared for some dramatic transformations.) Finally, 
prompted by these suggestions, we may speculate that Car- 
roll is comfortable with separate meanings simultaneously 
present, even paradoxical ones. 

[As a matter of interest, the lyrics of "Sally Come Up", along with 
the tune, can be found at http://mariah.stonemarche.org/livhis/ 
sally.htm. Due to its use of "the n* word" lue have elected not to 
print it here. It must be borne in mind, however, that this xvord 
was not particularly offensive in nineteenth century England; 
Dodgson himself used it freely (e.g. a letter to Mary MacDonald 
dated 5 December 1864).] 



Works Cited 

Brooker, Will. Letter (And Chase the Buffalo). 

The Carrollian Autumn 2002. 
Cool White. Lyrics of "Lubly Fan". Folk Music 

of England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, and 

America. 22 March 2003. www.contempla- 

tor.com/folk.html. 



Gardner, Martin (Ed.). The Annotated Alice. By 
Lewis Carroll. New York: Random House, 
1960. 

Nobel E-Museum. Heinrich Boll. Nobel Lec- 
ture. 2 May 1973. www.indiana.edu/ 
~letrs/vwwp/. 



Ramsey, T Lyrics of "Sally Come Up". Minstrel 
Songs, Old and New. A Collection of Minstrel 
and Plantation Songs. 22 March 2003. 
www.pdmusic.org/civilwar2/62scu.txt 






^flrroir6 Mon6ter6 



Ruth Berman 



M reluctance to use dragons helped some nine 
teenth-century fantasy writers to a delightful orig- 
inality in their monsters. Most fantasy writers in 
the period concentrated on humans or humanoids — 
ghosts, Doppelgdngers, a surprising variety of merfolk {e.g., 
James Hogg's mermaid in "Mary Burnett", de la Motte 
Fouque's "Undine", Heine's "Die Lorelei", H.C. Ander- 
sen's "Little Mermaid", Kingsley's Water Babies, Arnold's 
"Forsaken Merman"), witches, etc. There were not many 
supernatural beasts of any kind. 

Dragons got a boost from the discovery of dinosaurs; 
Stephen Prickett, in his Victorian Fantasy, has shown that 



dinosaurs caused an increase in the dragon population: 
first among artists and then, at the end of the century, 
among writers.' One of his examples is Tenniel's Jabber- 
wock, with its scaly saurian body. 

Tenniel's Jabberwock, not Carroll's. Whiffling and 
burbling are probably common to most monsters, and 
even eyes of flame belong to many. A Jabberwock is a Jab- 
berwock, not a dragon. 

The avoidance of dragons was not just neglect of mon- 
sters. Some monsters were used, but they tended not to be 
dragons. For instance, there was a Salamander (with 
snake-daughters) in E. T. A. Hoffmann's "The Golden 

21 



Pot", a rattlesnake-woman in Oliver Wendell Holmes' Elsie 
Venner, a Remora (a snake-like living glacier) and a Fire- 
drake (etymologically a dragon, but with horns and hoofs) 
in Andrew Lang's Prince Prigio. 

Writers were shying away from the word "dragon" — 
no doubt because in its literary use the dragon had been 
stereotyped as the dragon of Revelation, an absolutely evil 
dragon identified with Satan. This was the dragon fought 
by Spenser's Red Cross Knight in Book I of The Faerie 
Queene, the dragon Satan turns into when reporting the 
Fall to Hell in Book X of Milton's Paradise Lost. A monster 
by some other name would sound less Satanic — even if 
drawn as dragon-like by the illustrator. 

The artists probably had additional freedom because 
the dinosaurs were changing the image of what dragons 
looked like: the new dragons were shorter, fatter, 
bulkier — saurian instead of serpentine. An artist could 
draw something that would be 
recognized as a dragon, yet 
which did not look much like 
the kind of dragon slain in 
paintings of Saint George or 
the angel Michael. 

Lewis Carroll confined his 
dragons to brief references, 
such as the elegant syllogism, 
"All Dragons are uncanny; All 
Scotchmen are canny," proving 
that "All Dragons are not- 
Scotchmen" and "All Scotch- 
men are not-Dragons" in A 
Game of Logic, or the descrip- 
tion of a Latin text-book con- 
taining the words "Balbus as- 
sisting his mother-in-law to 
convince the dragon" (A Tan- 
gled Tale) .^ The illustrator of A Tangled Tale, Arthur B. Frost, 
at the suggestion of CarrolP chose that single phrase — 
which has nothing to do with the action of the story — as 
the basis for his illustration to the chapter, a full-pager of 
Balbus, his mother-in-law, and the unconvinced dragon. 

In his prentice work, Carroll's avoidance of the word 
"dragon" probably weakened the humor. In The Rectory 
Magazine (one of the private magazines — a sort of family 
fanzine of one copy each — Carroll edited for his brothers 
and sisters) in 1850, when he was 18, Carroll included two 
mock-horror poems. In "Horrors" the speaker who "saw a 
monster come with speed, / It's [sic] face of grimmliest 
green, / On human beings used to feed, / Most dreadful to 
be seen" is about to be eaten by it when he wakes. In "Ter- 
rors" the speaker sees a monster like "an angry snake" with 
"a yellow coat of mail . . . Puffing forth black coils of 
smoke."* The beast is a train, but in misapprehension it per- 
haps should have been a dragon, not just a snake. (It's in- 
teresting to note that two science fiction writers have made 
use of train-dragons: Ray Bradbury in "The Dragon" and 
Robert F. Young in "St. George and the Dragonmotive".) 

In the Alice books and The Hunting of the Snark, Carroll 
invented original monsters instead. The use of any spe- 

22 




cific name helps to make a monster more vivid, and the 
use of an absurd name like "jabberwock" or "snark" makes 
the creature funnier. These two monsters substitute for 
dragons as ferocious things to hunt. Some of Carroll's 
other monsters are less dragon-like and more amiable. 
The Cheshire Cat is disconcerting, but friendly. The Mock 
Turtle is a doleful creature, trapped (a little like his au- 
thor) in longing for his vanished childhood. The Looking- 
glass insects — the Rocking-horse-fly, the Snap-dragon-fly, 
and the Bread-and-butter-fly — ^are introduced by the Gnat 
as insects to rejoice in. 

In the two Sylvie and Brunohooks, though, there aren't 
exactly any monsters. There's a bear without a head in the 
Mad Gardener's song, a crocodile shortened and then 
stretched in the chapter "A Changed Crocodile", and at 
the end Prince Uggug turns into a ferocious porcupine. 
Parts of these two books show Carroll at his best, but as 

wholes they are poor. It may be 
a sign of what is going wrong in 
them that there is no creature 
in Outland more Outlandish 
than a wild porcupine. 

In addition to creating 
monsters, Carroll may have 
come across the Gryphon in 
the Grimm Brothers' collec- 
tion of folk-tales. A feather 
from a griffin's tail plays the 
role more commonly played by 
a hair from a giant's head in 
"The Griffin", the only one of 
the 210 stories in The Complete 
Grimm 's Fairy Tales with a mon- 
strous beast in the tide.^ 

Carroll gave his Gryphon a 
distinct personality, something 
this monster, unlike dragons, had never really had before. 
They guarded gold (according to Herodotus) or pulled 
the chariot of the Church in Purgatory (according to 
Dante), but they had no meetings with memorable antag- 
onists such as dragons had with Daniel, Perseus, Apollo, 
etc. Carroll's Gryphon is dangerous, of course, as is ex- 
pected of monsters, although this aspect is only hinted at 
in Alice's reaction after the Gryphon asks her to tell them 
her adventures: "She was a little nervous about it, just at 
first, the two creatures got so close to her, one on each 
side, and opened their eyes and mouths so very wide; but 
she gained courage as she went on."* More obviously, it is 
bossy, like most creatures in the Alice books; and it is a 
good listener and a sympathetic companion to its old 
school-fellow, the Mock-Turtle: "'Once,' said the Mock 
Turde at last, with a deep sigh, T was a real Turde.' These 
words were followed by a very long silence, broken only by 
an occasional exclamation of 'Hjckrrh!' from the 
Gryphon." (At least, "Hjckrrh!" sounds to me like an ex- 
pression of sympathy.) If the Gryphon's idea of how to 
treat depression sounds a little hostile — "it set to work 
shaking him and punching him in the back" — still, its con- 
scious intention in doing so is friendly. 



Carroll's success with his monsters may have helped 
draw attention to the literary possibilities of supernatural 
beasts generally. He certainly influenced the gryphons 
that followed. The griffin (sorry to keep switching 
spellings, but diJBFerent authors had different preferences) 
in "The Griffin and the Minor Canon" by Frank R. Stock- 
ton is a more ferocious creature, but an equally loyal 
friend; Stockton used griffins again, as less important char- 
acters, in "The Bee-Man of Om", with a paralyzed Ghasdy 
Griffin, and in "The Philopena", with a servant Gry- 
phoness; he also used Carroll's snap-dragon-fly pun to pro- 
duce one of the rare nineteenth-century dragons, the King 
of the Snapdragons, another minor character in "The Bee- 
Man of Om."' 

Kenneth Grahame went to Milton for his gryphons, 
recalling in the essay "Marginalia" how he used to love to 
draw in the margins. Satan in Paradise Lost (II. 943-7) was 
compared to a Gryphon pursu- 
ing an Arimaspian who has 
stolen his gold (characteristic 
Gryphon-behavior, from Hero- 
dotus). But Grahame mingled 
Milton with Carroll in his rec- 
ollections: "And so it has come 
about that, while Milton's peri- 
ods are mostly effaced from 
memory by the sponge of time, 
I can still see that vengeful 
Gryphon, cousin-german to 
the gentle beast that danced 
the Lobster-Quadrille by a cer- 
tain shore. "^ 

Grahame 's own contribu- 
tion to the monsters of litera- 
ture was "The Reluctant Dra- 
gon", an even more "gentle 
beast", published in 1898 in his Dream Days. Grahame 
turned the legend of the Dragon-slayer topsy turvy and 
secularized it. Saint George is as reluctant to kill needlessly 
as the Dragon is to be killed; the Dragon is not Satan, but 
a survivor from another geologic era, preserved by an 
earthquake — apparently a dinosaur, even though he re- 
members humans and his people as co-existing (in the 
days when more energetic dragons got themselves killed 
for eating humans). But then the Boy was a great reader 
of fairy tales and natural history sandwiched together, so 
it's no wonder that his Dragon mixes them also. 




1 don't know C. Molbech's The Fox, the Dog and the Grif- 
fin in the original; it is based on a folk-tale, and I suppose 
C. Molbech is Christian Knud Frederik Molbech, a nine- 
teenth-century Danish poet. Poul Anderson translated it 
(NY: Doubleday, 1966). Perhaps die Griffin in the folk-tale 
was as thoughtful of his employee and as generous as in 
this version, or perhaps Molbech or Anderson heightened 
those qualities, producing a griffin as kindly as those of 
Carroll, Stockton, and Grahame. 

Snif the IfFm (he lost his gr-rr in captivity) in Ruth 
Plumly Thompson's Jack Pumpkinhead of Oz (Chicago: 
Reilly &: Lee, 1929) feeds on red geraniums, is a poet and 
philosophizer, and joins enthusiastically with Jack to help 
Peter (a youngster from Philadelphia) find his way home. 
In twentieth-century fantasy, the dragon Lewis Carroll 
avoided has become the dominant monster. The habit of 
using monsters, original and traditional, developed by 

Carroll and a few other nine- 
teenth-century fantasists, re- 
mains. The creatures of unnat- 
ural nature are a paradoxical 
combination of the Romantic 
unity of all nature and the 
ironic alienation from nature. 
The monsters are a multi-va- 
lent symbol of one-ness and of 
division, of the human uncon- 
scious and of the non-human. 
Carroll's unicorn offered 
to believe in that Fabulous 
Monster, a child, if Alice would 
believe in him. She accepted 
the bargain. 

author's postscript: 1 didn't 
mean to suggest that Carroll 
would have encountered 
gryphons/griffins only in the Grimms — he would no 
doubt also have known such sources as Herodotus and 
Milton. This article was an offshoot to my longer study of 
dragons in nineteenth-century fiction, "Victorian Drag- 
ons: The Reluctant Brood," published in Children 's Litera- 
ture in Education later the same year. Vol. 15, No. 4, 1984, 
pp. 220-233. 

[This article was originally printed as "Lewis Carroll's Not-Drag- 
(ms"in Niekas No.32, 1984, ed. Ed Meskys, ©1984 by NIEKAS 
Publications. All rights were assigned to the original authors and 
artists and the present article is reprinted with the permission of 
the author.] 



1. Stephen Prickett, Victorian Fantasy 
(Bloomington IN: Indiana University 
Press, 1979), pp. 75-91. 

2. Lewis CarroU, The Game o/Lo^ (NY: 
Dover, 1958) , p. 29; originally published 
1887. A Tangled Tale (NY: Dover, 1958), p. 
6; originally published 1885. 

3. Letter, CLD to Frost, 5 August 1884 

4. Carroll, The Rectory Magazine (Austin: 
University of Texas Press, 1975), pp. 20, 
46-7; facsimile edition. 



5. Translated by Margaret Hunt, revised by 
James Stem, with introduction by Padraic 
Coliun and commentary by Joseph Camp- 
beU (NY: Pantheon Books, 1944). There 
are dragons in "The Two Brothers", "The 
Four Skillful Brothers", and "The Devil 
and His Grandmother" — but not in the 
tides. 

6. These stories are in Stockton's The Bee- 
Man ofOm and Other Fanciful Tales (NY: 
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1887). 



Kenneth Grahame, "Marginalia", in 
Pa^an Papers (London and NY: John Lane, 
The Bodley Head, 1898), p. 78; die essay 
first appeared in the National Observer, 
March 26, 1892. 



23 



MOSCOW'S Lewis CARROLL FANS 



Nina Demurova 



[The following brief article, which appeared in issue No. 7 of So- 
viet Women (1 971), recounts the author's visit to the Lewis Car- 
roll Society of some Moscow secondary-school students in 1971. 
August Imholtz says that he would probably never have found the 
article but for a summary of it he happened to see in the April 
1972 issue of The Horn Book. 7 

Once I received a bulky package through the mail 
with a letter and a batch of school notebooks en- 
closed. The letter was typed on a glossy white let- 
terhead with "Lewis Carroll Society, School No. 45, 
Moscow," printed at the top (some subjects are taught in 
English here). At that time, three years back, my transla- 
tion into Russian oi Alice in Wonderland And Through the 
Looking-Glass had just been published. 

How interesting it was to read the letter from the 
school children! They wrote that the sixth and seventh for- 
mers had founded the Lewis Carroll Society and wanted 
me to attend their meeting. They had carried out a very 
interesting test: they had taken a chapter from Alice in 
Wonderland znd translated it, each pupil giving his own ver- 
sion. They had sent me their translations and wanted me 
to go over them and give them my opinion. It was a brave 
attempt. The children evidently did not suspect that they 
had chosen one of the most difficult works in world litera- 
ture which had for a long time been considered untrans- 
latable. Most of them had spontaneously come to the only 
right conclusion it seemed to me: it was impossible to 
translate Carroll literally. 

My first meeting with the society was quite a lengthy 
one. I told the children how I had worked on the transla- 
tion, read chapters from both books, and answered ques- 
tions which fell thick and fast. Then the children told me 
how their society was founded and what they were en- 
gaged in. 

Every society, as you know, has its own rules. This soci- 
ety also had them: "Every member of the Lewis Carroll So- 
ciety MUST know the author's biography, read Alice in 
Wonderland \n the original, know one of Carroll's poems 
by heart, be interested in English literature and language, 
be able to write fairly reasonable letters in Russian and 
English, make a report on Lewis Carroll, attend all the So- 
ciety's meetings, have a sense of humor." How the last 
point (the most difficult) was fulfilled is illustrated by the 
memorandum to the members of the society, which is full 
of quotations from Alice. The following are some of the 
points listed: 

The first question to a newcomer: 

"Who are you?" 
Questions to check witnesses: 

"Do cats eat bats? Do bats eat cats? Why is a raven 

like a writing desk?" 



The first rule for a society member: 

"Do not lose your temper!" 
The second rule: 

"You don't know very much, and that's a fact." 
A polite reply to an invitation to make a report: 

"Well, if I must, I must." 
A favorable appraisal of a report: 

"Thank you, sir, for your interesting story." 
A friendly remark: 

"Don't grunt. That's not at all a proper way of 

expressing yourself." 

During the three years of the society's existence, the 
children have collected an enormous "archive" on Carroll; 
different editions of Alice m Russian and English, articles 
and cuttings from newspapers, and scientific books with 
quotations from Carroll. After all, he was an original sci- 
entist who had anticipated many of the new scientific dis- 
coveries. The children of School No. 45 are especially in- 
terested in this angle — many of them study mathematics 
and physics in earnest and intend to devote their life to it. 
That is why the society had decided to send out letters to 
outstanding Soviet scientists with a request to let them 
know about the meaning of Carroll's ideas in modern sci- 
ence. The scientists responded to this request: Professor Y. 
Khurgin, Doctor of Physico-Mathematical Science, sent 
detailed replies to the society. 

The children are very efficient in anything concern- 
ing Carroll. For instance, when the hook?, Jokes by Physicists 
and Physicists Continue to Joke were published in Russian 
with epigraphs from Carroll, the children got in touch 
with the publishers immediately and thanked them for the 
beautiful books, and begged the physicists to inform them 
about any of Carroll's quotations which they might come 
across during their scientific work. The physicists prom- 
ised to do so. When Moscow and Leningrad television stu- 
dios presented a play adapted from the book Alice in Won- 
derland, the children sent some very detailed letters with 
quite a few remarks, which were quite just in their criti- 
cism. 

What interesting reports they make in the society — 
"Carroll the Artist," "Carroll the Photographer," "Carroll's 
Illustrators," and all followed by magic lantern slides! 
WTien guests visit the society (and quite a few do) their re- 
ports are taped so that they can be heard again. Especially 
if the guests speak English, which is quite often. 

Recently the children held a quiz on who had the best 
knowledge of Carroll. They set up the questions them- 
selves. First prize was a bottle of peach juice labeled 
"DRINK ME!"; second, a box of marmalade candy with the 
inscription "Orange Marmalade"; third, a box of cakes 
with "EAT ME!" on it 



24 



On January 27th the society honoured Lewis Carroll's 
birthday. There was a competition for the best recitation. 
Each competitor had to recite two poems: one by Carroll; 
the second by any author using Carroll's style. The choice 
was excellent. We listened to the famous "Walrus and the 
Carpenter," the ballad "Jabberwocky," which is just as fa- 
mous, and Edward Lear and Ogden Nash. At the judges' 
table sat the director of studies Alexander Bessmertny, the 
permanent inspirer and sponsor of the society, and our 
honoured guest Walter May, who is an English translator 
of Russian and Soviet poets. We felt tense while counting 
the points. First prize was awarded to one of the vice-chair- 
men of the society, Lena Marfunina. There were three 



other prizes, and it seemed to me that the winners were 
very pleased with the English books they received. 

When we parted the children asked if there was a Car- 
roll Society somewhere in England or America, and if so, 
it would be a good idea to establish ties with them! Alas, I 
was not able to answer this question, but promised to write 
an article and with it the words: "Carroll fans! Please an- 
swer!". 

[Some 32 years later we can answer Lena Marfunina and the 
students of School No. 45 that indeed there are Carroll Societies 
not only in England and the United States, but also Canada, 
Japan, Australia, and Holland.] 






Dr John Tufail 



When, in 1954, Derek Hudson published Lewis 
Carroll: An Illustrated Biography, one of the many 
new 'revelations' contained in this work was the 
publication for the first time of the earliest known of his 
letters. Addressed to 'My dear Bun' (apparently his 
nurse), it says: 

My dear Bun, 

I love you very much, & tend you a kitt from lit- 
tle Charlie with the horn of hair. I'd like to give you 
a kitt, but I tan't, because I'm at Marke. Wliat a long 
letter I've written. I'm twite tired. 

Precisely how old Carroll was when this letter was 
penned is not known, but from the language, and the sus- 
picion that 'clearly he had been 
helped in the writing' it would 
not be unreasonable to assume 
an age of two to three years. This 
would date the letter not later 
than 1835, possibly earlier. As we 
shall see, this outside date is of 
some importance. 

Hudson doesn't tell us 
where 'Marke' is; indeed he 
couldn't as there is actually no 
such place in the UK! This little 
entry seems to have been treated 
as unimportant trivia by Hudson, in fact of such little im- 
port that Morton Cohen, in his 1995 biography, omitted 
mention of it completely. To an extent this is understand- 
able, as where Lewis Carroll spent a short holiday when he 
was four years old does not, on the face of it, seem of par- 
ticular significance. 

This may have been a mistake. For if Hudson (or 
Cohen for that matter) had taken the trouble to satisfy nat- 
ural curiosity on the location of 'Marke' it might well have 
proved revelatory in understanding at least some of the 



My dear Bun, 

I love you very much, &f tend you 
a kitt from little Charlie with the horn 
of hair. I'd like to give you a kitt, but I 
tan't, because I'm at Marke. What a 
long letter I've written. I'm twite tired. 



factors that led Dodgson Snr to the living and Croft, and 
his eldest son to fall under the benign and stimulating 
tutelage of James Tate at Richmond school. 

A search of United Kingdom place names in the first 
half of the nineteenth century reveals that there is no such 
place as 'Marke'. However, there are two 'Marske's , both 
in North Yorkshire, and it is almost certain that it is one of 
these locations to which the letter refers. 

Marske-on-Sea is a small fishing village at the foot of 
the Cleveland hills, about five miles from Redcar. It is an 
unlikely place for the Dodgson family to stay, even briefly, 
as they had no known connections there and, in 1835, there 
seems to have been no other accommodation that would 
have been suitable for a family of 
the Dodgson 's status. 

The other Marske, however, 
holds much greater promise — 
not least in the fact that it is just 
a few miles from Croft! The vil- 
lage itself is (and was) even 
smaller than Marske-on-Sea. 
However, of greater significance 
is that it is the location of Marske 
Hall, seat of the Hutton family — 
a family that, uniquely, boasts two 
Archbishops of Canterbury in its 
lineage! Further, as the major 
landowners of the area, their influence over the disposal 
of the Croft Living would have been crucial. Of further in- 
terest is that the head of the family at the time, John Hut- 
ton, was a lifelong friend of James Tate. 

So, it seems, around 1835, some eight years before 
Dodgson Snr was finally granted a living appropriate to 
his talents, the Dodgsons were almost certainly the guests 
of the most influential person in the area (there really was- 
n't anywhere other than Marske Hall where the Dodgsons 
could have stayed). 

25 



It would be facile to assume that the event of the 
Dodgsons being the guests of John Hutton, and Dodgson 
Snr's appointment to Croft are totally unconnected. If 
John Hutton had not approved of Charles Dodgson, it 
would have been inconceivable that he would have been 
granted the Croft Living. 

In a sense, this article has been submitted to stimulate 
further research, rather than give answers — for the bare 
facts as outlined certainly open several lines of potentially 
fruitful inquiry that this writer has not had the time to pur- 
sue. For example, other than the fact that John Hutton 
was considered a well-respected 
and benign personality of gener- 
ally liberal views, with a keen inter- 
est in horse racing and breeding, I 
can offer nothing that would indi- 
cate the nature of the person or 
why he would consider Charles 
Dodgson a suitable Incumbent for 
Croft. Nor is it known how it was 
that Hutton and Dodgson were 
drawn together, though the suspi- 
cion is that the two families had 
some long-term connection. I say 
this because another branch of the 
Hutton family is based in Beverley, 
East Yorkshire, where, in the 
churchyard of St Mary's, there is a 
statue of the White Rabbit that 
commemorates Lewis Carroll's 
connection with that town. Coinci- 
dentally, the Beverley Huttons 
were neighbours to the Tyrwhitt 
family in Lincolnshire — and 
Richard St John Tyrwhitt, vicar of 
St Mary Magdelene, Oxford, was 
one of Carroll's closest compan- 
ions in his early years at Christ 
Church. 

It certainly appears that Hud- 
son missed the opportunity for a 
most interesting area of research 

that may well give invaluable insights into aspects of Dodg- 
son Snr's character and beliefs that have so far remained 
hidden. It also raises the intriguing question of the eight 
year gap between 1835 and 1843. Was there further, as yet 
unknown, contact between Dodgson Snr and Hutton (and 
Tate)? Was this the beginning of a 'grooming' process? It 
has been assumed that Pusey was the dominant influence 
in the development of Dodgson's career, leading many 
commentators to assume that Dodgson's theology and phi- 
losophy were perhaps indivisible from Pusey's. Perhaps 
this assumption may have to be re-examined and modi- 
fied? Why would two people, Hutton and Tate, whose 




; J,;;,, iiu Si. Mary's (Church Bnmly website: "On Uie rigid of 
the door to the Sacristy is a stone figure of a rabbit [above] 
ztiith a pilgrim's staff and scrip, carved about 1^30, and said 
to have inspired I^eivis Carroll's Wliite Rabbit in Alice in 
Wonderland. 

The Pilgrim Rabbit has been adopted in recent years as 
St Mary's Church logo, "http://website.lineone.net/~hoskin/ 
stmaryschurch/ChurchguideStMichaelsChapel/images/ 
rabbit_4 5 oh.jpg. 



views on religion and education seem so at odds with the 
portrait that Hudson, Cohen and others paint of Dodgson 
Snr, feel that Dodgson was the right person for the Croft 
post? Hopefully this brief note will encourage some en- 
thusiastic Carroll scholar to pursue the many strands that 
I have left waving tantalisingly in the breeze! 

EDWARD WAKELING COMMENTS: 

My Gazetteer (1870) indicates that Marske was a tributary of 
the Swale River. The village of Marske included the hamlets of 
Feldon and Skelton and consisted of 6537 acres. To say that 
Marske Hall was the only place where 
the Dodgsons could stay is somewhat 
deceptive. There were other buildings in- 
cluding a school, 52 houses, and a rec- 
tory. 

As far as I remember, there is a 
stone carving of a "dressed" rabbit in- 
side the church of St. Mary 's — often at- 
tributed (without evidence) to be the 
source of the White Rabbit in Wonder- 
land. 

There isn 't much evidence to sug- 
gest that Richard St John Tyrwhitt was 
one of "Carroll's closest companions" 
at Christ Church — he hardly comes 
into the Diaries, unlike people such as 
Bayne, Prout, Kitchin, etc. They had 
some discussion about "art" but the im- 
pression I get is that Dodgson didn 't 
accept Tyrwhitt 's argument. Dodgson 
photographed him twice — but he pho- 
tographed many Oxford colleagues. 




26 






Michael S. Hart, Principal Instigator 



Here is the story of how I first realized that Project 
Gutenberg was going to work, whether anyone 
older than teen-agers thought it was going to or 
not. We still get e-mail stating that not one person is ever 
going to read books from computers! 

The story takes place at a time when we literally had 
only about a dozen eTexts online; so set your "wayback ma- 
chine" for 1989. At the beginning of that year, there were 
only 80,000 computers in host mode in the entire Inter- 
net, but by October that had doubled, the only time we 
can actually be sure the Net doubled in size after the pri- 
mary effort when it first went coast to coast in 1971. 

This was the year we got our very first response saying 
that putting text files of books on the Internet was any- 
thing other than crazy, but this story signified even more: 
that to the new generation, eTexts would be the way of the 
future, no matter what the adults and pundits might think. 

I was on the phone that day with the Executive Direc- 
tor of Common Knowledge (a project to put the Library 
of Congress catalogs into public domain MARC [MAchine- 
Readable Cataloging] records), and during the conversa- 
tion — and I am not kidding — there was this huge noise 
that literally sounded as if an elephant had fallen right 
through the roof. She dropped the phone, so I decided 
that if I hadn't heard anything in a minute or two, I would 
hang up and perhaps try to call emergency services there. 

However, she was back in a minute, laughing her head 
off, and here is what she told me: 

Her son had been playing around with her computer, 
and found her copy of Project Gutenberg's Alice in Won- 
derland and had started reading it. He mentioned this at 
his middle school, and the next day a few of the kids fol- 
lowed him home to see it, and the day after that even more 
kids followed him home to read Alice's adventures. Finally 
the number of kids grew so great that they were hanging 
off a huge oak chair like Chinese acrobats on a bicycle, 
and this poor old oak chair had so many kids all over it, 
reading Alice in Wonderland, that it suddenly separated into 
all its parts, and kids went tumbling in all directions, mak- 
ing the huge noise heard round the world . . . eventually . 



. . for at that very moment, in 1989, I realized that eBooks 
were going to succeed, no matter what any of a host of 
adults thought, because to the next generation, this will 
be their memory of Alice in Wonderland, just as mine was a 
golden-inscribed red leather edition my family used to 
read together. 

["The Project Gutenberg Philosophy is to make information, 
books and other materials available to the general public informs 
a vast majority of the computers, programs and people can easily 
read, use, quote, and search. " 

Project Gutenberg (http:/ /promo, net/pg/) was the brain- 
child of Michael Hart. It began in igyi lohen he typed in a copy 
of the Declaration of Independence and wished to mail it to 
everyone then on the network (fewer than lOO people!), but fortu- 
nately realized that it would have crashed the Net, so posted it 
instead to what would later become comp.gen. Since then, their 
philosophy of making public domain texts available to the great- 
est number of users has resulted in over 8,ooo eTexts, roughly 
categorized into "light literature", "heavy literature", and "refer- 
ence", and they are continuing to expand at the rate of about 
275 works a month. All texts are encoded in "plain vanilla 
ASCII" and contain no formatting other than setting a word in 
all-caps if it is bolded or italicized. (They are presently adding 
hundreds of HTML and other format editions.) These versions 
are not claiming to be definitive or authoritative texts, but the 
service they provide in making the texts freely available and 
searchable is of monumental consequence, not to mention often 
providing a basis for texts zvhen publishing traditional books. 

The first documents that xvere online xoere very short, due to 
the problems of data storage at that time. The first longer books to 
be entered ivere, following in their namesake's footsteps, both Tes- 
taments of the King James Bible and editions of the works of 
Shakespeare. The very next book z^as Alice's Adventures in 
Wonderland, entered in igSg. Michael calls it "the one book 
that got us off the ground, in the sense of word of mouth really 
starting to take off. It was the first of our eBooks to appeal to 
readers of all ages, an eBook that kids, parents, and grandpar- 
ents all shoived to each other "] 







27 



■VS'^K?' 

RORCE? AnID CARROLL : OnI A CCALE OF OtslE TO OkJE 

Clare Imholtz 




^he great Argentinian writer Jorge Luis Borges was 
an avid reader of Lewis Carroll. Abundant refer- 
ences can be found in Borges' works to both well- 
known and more obscure Carrollian writings — especially 
to the playfixl philosophical parts of Carroll's work, such 
as the Red King's dream and the race between Achilles 
and the Tortoise. Given Borges' love of philosophical co- 
nundra, it is not surprising that he 
frequently refers, implicitly or explic- 
itly, to the Sylvie and Bruno books. 
Both Carroll and Borges, for exam- 
ple, tell a story about a 1:1 scale map. 
Carroll's occurs in Sylvie and Bruno 
Concluded. It goes like this: 

"WTiat a useful thing a pocket-map 
is!" I remarked. 

"That's another thing we've 
learned from your Nation," said 
Mein Herr, "map-making. But 
we've carried it much further than 
you. What do you consider the 
largest map that would be really 
useful?" 

"About six inches to the mile." 

"Only six inches!" exclaimed 
Mein Herr. "We very soon got to 
six yards to the mile. Then we tried 
a hundred yards to the mile. And 
then came the grandest idea of all! 
We actually made a map of the country, on the scale 
of a mile to the mile!" 

"Have you used it much?" I enquired. 

"It has never been spread out, yet," said Mein 
Herr: "the farmers objected: they said it would cover 
the whole country, and shut out the sunlight! So we 
now use the country itself, as its own map, and I as- 
sure you it does nearly as well." 

Borges' 1:1 map story, entitled "Del rigor en la Cien- 
cia [On Rigor in Science]", was published in Buenos Aires 
in 1935 in Historia universal de la infamia, and first ap- 
peared in English in Dreamtigers (University of Texas 
Press, 1964). Borges is as succinct as Carroll, but the tone 
of the story has changed completely. What in Carroll was a 
humorous lesson in the limits of precise representation 
becomes in Borges' hands a comment on civilization it- 
self, for Borges' map, unlike Carroll's, has been used, and 
with unhappy consequences. 

"...In that Empire, the Art of Cartography reached 
such perfection that the map of one Province alone 



Scale ofytilei. 



pire, the whole of a Province. In time, those Uncon- 
scionable Maps did not satisfy and the Colleges of 
Cartographers set up a Map of the Empire which 
had the Size of the Empire itself and coincided with 
it point by point. Less Addicted to the Study of Car- 
tography, Succeeding Generations understood that 
this Widespread Map was Useless and not without 
Impiety they abandoned it to the 
Inclemencies of the Sun and of 
the Winters. In the deserts of the 
West some mangled ruins of the 
Map lasted on, inhabited by Ani- 
mals and by Beggars; in the whole 
Country there are no other relics 
of the Disciplines of Geography." 

There can be no doubt that 
Borges was familiar with Carroll's 
version, but he does not refer to it. 
Rather, in a typical Borgesian twist 
he invents a seventeenth-century 
Spanish author and source: "Suarez 
Miranda: Viajes de Varones Prudentes, 
Book Four, Chapter XLV, Lerida, 
1658". 

In preparing our bibliography 
of the Sylvie and Bruno books, Byron 
Sewell and I found that the map 
story is far and away the most quoted 
OCEAN-CHART. excerpt. Not surprisingly, it appears 

that Borges' version is equally popular among his readers. 
Unfortunately, few of them seem to recognize the debt to 
Carroll and (if I can generalize from an Internet search) 
most unquestioningly accept the nonexistent Suarez Mi- 
randa as a legitimate source. 

For those of us fond of both writers, it is a delight to 
find references to Carroll in the works of a twentieth-cen- 
tury genius like Borges. Yet I find it unfortunate that 
Borges' debt to Carroll can never be returned (even in 
part, much less on a scale of 1:1). What if the circle could 
somehow be completed, and Carroll could be found to 
quote Borges? It could happen — but alas, only in a story 
told by Borges himself, or perhaps one he cites in his fa- 
mous essay, "Borges and I". 

[An appreciation of Carroll by Borges appeared in KL ^^ (its 
first publication in English translation). The essay served as the 
prologue to Eduardo Stilman 's marvelous translation Los Li- 
bros de Alicia (Best Ediciones / Ediciones de la Flor, Argentina, 
iggS, ()^o-^i yi6c)-i}.] 




took up the whole of a City, and the map of the Em- 



28 



THe FORBeS COLLSCTION SALG 

OF VICTORIAN PICTURBS AND WORKS OF ART 
CHRISTie'S. LONDON. FGBRUARY 19-20, 2003 

HuGUES Lebailly 



Were it not for Mark Richard's most kind initia- 
tive to send me excerpts from this sale's cata- 
logue a few days before it took place, this major 
event for anyone interested in Victorian art in general, 
and in Charles Lutwidge Dodgson's lifelong interest in the 
artistic productions of his time in particular, would have 
slipped my notice. Thanks to him, I was able to order on- 
line the magnificent three-volume catalogue compiled by 
Christie's on the very eve of the first day of the sale. 

On top of being lavishly illustrated in colour through- 
out, it offers fifteen fascinating surveys by such eminent 
authorities on nineteenth-century British fine arts as John 
Christian, Lionel Lambourne, Susan Casteras, Debra Man- 
coff, and Charlotte Gere (to name but a few), which makes 
it worth, not only its quite expensive price (£65 / €90 / 
$105) , but also keeping and referring to long after the sale 
itself has taken place. 

Carrollians will be glad to hear that out of the 258 
artists listed in the index, 44 are mentioned in Dodgson's 
diaries, and to see him quoted on three occasions as a reli- 
able connoisseur by the authors, but a bit disappointed to 
realise that written evidence of his interest in the works of- 
fered for sale here is only available with regard to 5 of the 
361 catalogue numbers: 

II. Arthur Hughes, A Birthday Picnic — Portraits of the 
children of William and Anne Pattinson of Felling, near 
Gateshead, oil on canvas, painted arch, 102.2 x 127.6 cm, 
estimate : £300, 000-500, 000 / sold for £380, 850. 
R.L.Green's edition of The Diaries of Lexuis Carroll (Cassell, 
1953) is listed among the literature on the work and the 
detailed notice provides us with fascinating insights into 
the Pattinson family's patronage of Hughes and connec- 
tions with James Leathart, whose home and painting col- 
lection CLD visited on October 2, 1864, and whose family 
the artist was to portray in 1865 in Mrs Leathart and her three 
Children, which was given pride of place by CLD among 
his favourite works at the Royal Academy summer exhibi- 
tion that year (diary entry of Tuesday, 4 July, 1865). The 
anonymous writer establishes an interesting link between 
Hughes's work and William Holman Hunt's The Children's 
Holiday (Portrait of Mrs Thomas Fairbairn and her Children), 
which CLD saw in the artist's studio on April 8, 1865, and 
"for which [he] suggested the name 'The Children's Holi- 
day' which [Hunt] ultimately adopted", as CLD added on 
May 21, 1865, in the margin of his notebook close to the 
former entry. 

Arthur Hughes's Birthday P?"fw?V itself is mentioned in 
CLD's diary entry for April 7, 1867, when "in the after- 



noon [his brother] Wilfred and [himself] called at the 
Hughes', and found them all at home as usual", as one of 
the three pictures the artist was soon to send to the Royal 
Academy: "the child found in the wood [L'Enfant perdu] , a 
family group of the name of Pattinson (Gateshead), and a 
sweet little thing of a child with a box of bricks, standing 
up in the corner and balancing one of them on her head: 
it is a child of Mr. F. T. Palgrave [Cecily Ursula, aged three 
years]". 

75. Arthur Hughes, Home from Work, oil on canvas, painted 
arch, 10^.2 X 81.^ cm, estimate : £400,000-600,000 / 
did not sell 

Green's Diaries is again listed among the literature on the 
work, and the notice, which describes the work as "one of 
Hughes's most enchanting conceptions" points out that: 
"Not surprisingly in view of its subject, the picture must 
also have been noticed and remembered by Lewis Carroll. 
On 21 July 1863, two years after its exhibition, he noted in 
his diary as follows: 'Called on Mr Arthur Hughes and saw 
some lovely pictures, and his four little children, one of 
whom is painted in 'The Woodman's Return'." 

This entry appears in Volume 4 of Wakeling's unex- 
purgated edition of the diaries, but, due to an unfortunate 
lack of coordination between ourselves, he describes The 
Woodman's Return as "not identified", adding that "it may 
have had another name when exhibited"! The work was 
mentioned by CLD, under its correct title, on two more 
occasions: on October 6, 1863, when he refers to it as ap- 
parently the second major highlight of Mr Leathart's col- 
lection, in his eyes, after Millais's Autumn Leaves, and on 
October 2, 1864, when he was at last able to get access to 
it, under Mrs Leathart's padent and benevolent guidance: 
"She only was at home, and most kindly gave up about one 
and a half hours to showing us the pictures. Millais' 'Au- 
tumn Leaves', Arthur Hughes' 'Home from W^rk' and 
'The Little Rift within the Lute', Maddox Brown's Baa- 
lamb' and 'Cordelia' and others..." 

81. Daniel Maclise, The Play Scene in 'Hamlet', pencil and 
xvatercolour, heightened with bodycolour and xuith gum arabic, 
arched, ^^.^ x 64.2 cm, estimate : £18,000-2^,000 / 
sold for £1 J, ^2^ 

The catalogue makes it clear that "the present work is an 
exact copy in watercolour of Maclise 's masterpiece exhib- 
ited at the Royal Academy, 1842 /Tate Britain, London/', 
but there is no evidence that CLD ever saw the original oil 
painting, "one of the most startling, wonderful pictures 
that the English school has ever produced", according to 



29 



Thackeray. The work might very well have been familiar 
to him through a later engraving, and he only refers to it 
as a very likely source of inspiration for Charles Kean's 
grouping of the characters on the stage of the Princess: 
"Kean was best in the play scene (evidently grouped from 
Maclise's picture..." (January 16, 1856). No wonder the 
catalogue does not quote that very allusive and indirect 
reference to the work. 

I had so far spotted but a black and white reproduc- 
tion of the work (which I had found in Harriet Welchel's 
John Ruskin and the Victorian Eye (Harry N. Abrams, 1993; 
fig. 39), so this full-page colour printing is a boon to my 
personal collection of CLD's favourite pictorial works. 

g^.John Leech, Married for Money — The Honeymoon, oil 

on canvas, 56.2 x y6.8 cm, estimate : £8,000-12,000 / 
did not sell 

gS.John Leech, Did you Ever?, oil on canvas, ^1.4 x y6.8 cm, 
estimate : £j, 000-10, 000 / did not sell 

Again, these are works I had never been able to trace. The 
catalogue describes them as "part of the 'Sketches in Oil' 
which Leech prepared for the exhibition which he held in 
London in 1862, opening at the Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly, 
and later moving to the Auction Mart Gallery, Royal Ex- 
change. The 'Sketches' were enlarged lithographs of his 
Punch cartoons, blown up by the Electro-Block Printing 
Company, and then painted in oils, a technique he learnt 
from Millais." On July 19, 1862, CLD "went to see Leech's 
oil-pictures" and was disappointed: "I don't think colour 
improves them." It is nevertheless very interesting for a 
Carrollian scholar to be able to see exactly what they 
looked like. 

Though Joseph Noel Paton's Evening (235) is not 
among the nine works by the great Scottish artists CLD 
mentioned on at least three different occasions in his di- 
aries, the author of its notice mentions that "Lewis Carroll 
was an admirer, as was Queen Victoria..." 

The longer notice dedicated to Paton's In Gethsemane 
(298) will provide interesting information on the artist to 
those Carrollians who are not particularly well versed in 
Victorian art, as will those on Sophie Anderson (102 & 
290), Thomas Faed (15), Frederick Goodall (159), James 
Hayllar (100) and his eldest daughter Jessica Hayllar (267) 
who get mixed up in the index, as it only refers to the ini- 
tials of the artists — the same mistake affects William Henry 
and William Holman Hunt, a minor but unbelievable blot 
on such a fascinating and scholarly catalogue! — Frank 
Holl (114), George Dunlop Leslie — who exhibited Alice in 
Wonderland Sit the Royal Academy in 1879 — (268), Valen- 
tine Cameron Prinsep (293), James Sant (52) and Edward 
Matthew Ward (258). 



The notices dedicated to the other little-known artists 
mentioned in CLD's diaries, William Allan, Helen Ailing- 
ham, James Archer, John Collier, Charles West Cope, Wal- 
ter Crane, William Charles Thomas Dobson, William 
Dyce, Samuel Luke Fildes, George Elgar Hicks, Henry Le 
Jeune, Benjamin Williams Leader, Charles Robert Leslie, 
Edwin Long, Henry Nelson O'Neil, and William Blake 
Richmond — who painted the three Liddell sisters — are 
not informative enough on their careers as a whole to 
quench a Carrollian 's thirst for some general knowledge 
on them. However, even though their works reproduced 
here are not those CLD mentioned in his diaries, he might 
have seen some of them in his regular visits to the R.A. and 
not recorded it and, even if he didn't, they can provide 
some notion of what kind of pictures they produced. 

The dozen or so nude studies by William Etty to be 
found in Volumes 2 and 3 are very interesting to examine, 
as they can provide those of us who are not too familiar 
with that artist — described by Nathaniel Hawthorne as 
"the most disagreeable of English painters, who had a dis- 
eased appetite for woman's flesh, and spent his whole life, 
apparently, in painting them with enormously developed 
busts", "thrusting their nudity upon you with malice afore- 
thought" — with some notion of what his Judith may have 
looked like on the triptych CLD "thought in parts ad- 
mirable" when he saw it on September 12, 1857, at the Ed- 
inburgh National Gallery. 

The presence in the index of two of Lewis Carroll's 
major illustrators, Harry Furniss and John Tenniel, as well 
as that of his friend George du Maurier, is mouth-water- 
ing, but they are merely quoted for their contributions to 
the decoration of four autograph fans (125, 126, 324 and 
325). More rewarding is the inclusion of a drawing by 
William de Morgan (232), whose workshop produced the 
tiles that decorated the fireplace of CLD's living-room at 
Christ Church. 

A last category of artists CLD mentions in his diaries 
but whom I have not discussed so far, includes Ford 
Madox Brown, Edward Burne-Jones, William Holman 
Hunt, Edwin Landseer, Frederic Leigh ton, John Everett 
Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and George Frederic 
Watts, whose careers and works I expect to be already fa- 
miliar to most of us. 

[Edward Wakeling's edition of the Diaries (Lewis Carroll Society 
[U.K.], igcf^ [Vol. i] - 200^ [Vol. y], luith two more to come) is 
supplanting Green 's as the definitive edition. Hugues Lehailly is 
currently providing him xvith research details of most of the luorks 
of art mentioned therein. Wakeling notes "In the earlier volumes, 
we were less 'coordinated'!"] 



30 



'^>i>?' 

Two More Contemporary Reviews of Sylvie and Bruno 

August A. Imholtz, Jr. and Clare Imholtz 



We have recently discovered two more reviews 
which were not included in the three previous 
Knight Letters (nos. 62, 63, and 67) that 
reprinted contemporary reviews of Sylvie and Bruno and 
Sylvie and Bruno Concluded. 

The first review appeared in the April 1890 Book Talk, 
an obscure short-lived literary periodical published by St. 
Paul Book 8c Stationery Company, St. Paul, Minnesota. Un- 
fortunately, the review appears to be in part a plagiary of 
the review that appeared in The Literary World, Vol. 21, No. 
4, Feb. 15, 1890 (see KL 67). Also printed in the same issue 
of Book Talk is a short excerpt from the novel, the scene in 
which Sylvie, Bruno, and the Professor encounter the Gar- 
dener, who recites "He thought he saw an Albatross" and 
"He thought he saw a Garden-Door." Furniss' illustration 
of the Albatross is reproduced. 

The second review appeared in "Folios and Foot- 
lights", a regular column in The New Review. Notices and 
reviews that were printed in regularly reappearing feature 
articles such as this are notoriously difficult to find unless 
some good indexer has listed the contents in a printed or 
online database. Fortunately this was the case, and we were 
able to locate this short notice through The Wellesley Index 
of Victorian Literature. 

BOOK TALK, VOL. 1, No. 3, APRIL 189O 

Readers of those delightful fairy stories, "Alice's Adven- 
tures in Wonderland" and "Through the Looking Glass," 
will eagerly welcome the last work from the pen of Lewis 
Carroll. 

DOONESBURY by Garry Trudeau 



"Sylvie and Bruno," while containing enough quaint 
and curious materials to furnish another volume as de- 
lightful as the former ones, is somewhat marred by the au- 
thor's frequent attempts in the line of moralizing, in 
which he is clearly out of his element. 

There are several things during the course of the nar- 
rative entirely out of place in a volume of this kind, no- 
tably the ridicule of schools of modern thought, the mor- 
alizing at the end of the preface and the attack on the 
Ritualists; for Lewis Carroll in his own peculiar gift of odd 
conceits and whimsicalities is unsurpassed, and while he 
writes in this vein is delightful, but when he attempts seri- 
ous writing, he is rather wearisome. There is plenty of hu- 
mour, however, in the story, and any person young or old 
must have a very jaded appetite who will not enjoy read- 
ing it. 

THE NEW REVIEW. "FOLIOS AND FOOTLIGHTS" VOL. 2, No. 
9, FEBRUARY 1890, BY L.F. AUSTIN 

[After reviewing Mark Twain's Connecticut Yankee in King 
Arthur's Court, Austin continues as follows:] But something 
has gone wrong with one of our own humorists. Can you 
fancy the Walrus and the Carpenter discussing the moral- 
ity of play-going, and deciding that the fear of sudden 
death in a theatre ought to convince the timid that it is 
wrong for them to go there? Surely, Mr. Carroll, that is the 
last idea in the world to put into the head of a child, espe- 
cially at pantomime time; but perhaps nobody expects 
children to read the preface of Sylvie and Bruno. 

March 14, 2003 



CK FIlOManNG JUPICIAL 
li^57J<A/NT e/ZVPO/NT- 
/M5 JUPtaAi. ACV\//STSf 
OK MAK/NS m^ AOPIP 
SAfeK BV STAfiT- 
IN6AiUAR! 
\ 





March 15, 2003 




31 



^5#- 














leaves ifinom rhe Deaneny Ganden 



I am an artist from St. Petersburg in 
Russia who has illustrated Lewis Car- 
roll's Alice in Wonderland and Through 
the Looking-Glass. I have made a total 
of eighty illustrations (mixed media 
on paper) relating to both books. As 
you can see, I work in a modern style, 
combining pencil drawings of Car- 
roll's characters with elements of 
Suprematism. 

As you can imagine, I would very 
much like to see my illustrations pub- 
lished in your country. I envisage 
something in the way of an "artist's 
book" — a limited edition of deluxe 
books accompanied by the texts or 
selected excerpts. 

Confining the print run to a hun- 
dred or so numbered and personally 
signed copies, possibly available 
through special subscription, would 
make each book a handsome present 
and a unique work of art in its own 
right. 

Publication of the book could also 
be accompanied by an exhibition of 
the illustrations. 

If you are interested in supporting 
such a project or know of any organi- 
zations that might be interested, I 
would be very grateful if you could 
write to me by return e-mail. 

Please feel free to visit my modest 
website at www.juliabogatova.narod.ru 
/gal_3.html 



Yours sincerely, 
Julia Bogatova 
juliabogatova@mail.ru 

[Suprematism was a radical and signifi- 
cant precursor to Constructivism, begin- 
ning in Russia c.igi^ and based around 
artist Kasimir Malevich, who built up 
pictures from geometric shapes xoithout 
reference to observed reality. There is a 
splendid show of his work at the Guggen- 
heim Museum in New York from May 
through September 7, 2005. Miss Boga- 
tova is an extraordinarily talented artist, 
and it would be wonderful if she could 
find a sponsor within (or without) our 
ranks.] 

^1^ 



I never cease to marvel at how much 
interesting material you can find for 
Knight Letter. What a good idea to 
reprint August's article ["Latin and 
Greek Versions of 'Jabberwocky' ", KL 
70 p. 5]. It should be, and now it will 
be, more readily available. I know I 
found it of great interest (and help) 
while we were working on Jabberland 
[KL 70 p. 25]. And thank you for the 
kind words about my article. But did- 
n't you get my message that most of 
those Wockies are pastiches or imita- 
tions, not "parodies"? Oh, dear! I'm 
afraid I'm doomed to be a prophet 
crying in the wilderness. 
Hilda Bohem 




In "A Dis-Parody of Anonymity" {KL 
69), I wrote that " 'Twinkle, Twinkle 
Little Star' does not qualify as a nurs- 
ery rhyme since it has a known au- 
thor." As Jon Lindseth rightly pointed 
out, a nursery rhyme does not need to 
be anonymous. Somehow the phrase 
"as a nursery rhyme" was not deleted 
from an original draft that once 
played with such a forced definition. 

I continued to write: "the author, 
Jane Taylor, published it in her book 
Rhymes of the Nurseryl According to 
Opie's The Oxford Dictionary of Nursery 
Rhymes, it was collected in 1860 and 
1865, in both cases as songs." Mr. 
Lindseth writes that "It was originally 
a poem, not a song as stated by the 
authors." I stated no such thing. After 
describing the original writer as an 
"author" (not a "composer" or "lyri- 
cist") and, in this context especially, 
using the word "collected," I believe 
the meaning is clear. It is surely odd 
to read the 1860 date as referring to 
the publication date of the book men- 
tioned in the previous sentence. 

After mentioning a completely 
different rhyme with the words "Twee- 
dle-dum and Tweedle-dee" from the 
one in Looking-Glass, Mr. Lindseth 
writes "If this is the earliest, as I be- 
lieve it to be, then it is a satire, not a 
nursery rhyme and wasn't written 



32 



anonymously as claimed by the au- 
thors." I claimed no such thing. In 
fact, the article clearly makes no refer- 
ence to the Handel/Bononcini rhyme 
and therefore could not possibly be 
wrong (or right) about anything con- 
cerning that poem. Any attempt to 
connect the article with that rhyme — 
using inference, extension or a bull- 
dozer — is Mr. Lindseth's own maneu- 
vering. 

Jon Lindseth correctly states that 
Carroll did parody the characters and 
events in the nursery rhymes listed, if 
not the rhymes themselves. But if I 
read him correctly, this is the "defini- 
tion to resolve" in his opening sen- 
tence. But the titles of the lists both 
contain the word "Rhymes" — "Anony- 
mous Rhymes Carroll Used But Did 
Not Parody In The Alice Books" — 
and it is with the rhymes, the words, 
that the lists are clearly concerned. 
Further, since the first lines were 
given for each rhyme, and not merely 
the characters of the rhymes, it is 
completely obvious that the lists are 
concerned with word parody. The 
short article does not warrant a dis- 
cussion on the definition of "parody." 

Matt Demakos 



I received Knight Letter 70 today. 
Your San Francisco gathering 
seems to have been an extraordinarilv 



interesting event! "Alice's Wonder- 
land: A Most Curious Adventure" 
seems to be far ahead of any interac- 
tive projects over here. I think it 
would be greatly appreciated if it 
came over. 

I gather from your endnote to my 
letter /KL 70 p. 20] that I must have 
slipped up on my American. (Some- 
body borrowed my English-American 
dictionary some ten years ago and 
never returned it. I now possess a 
computer programme which works in 
either English or American, but I did 
not have it when I wrote the letter.) 
In place of the American "thru" I 
used the English "through," but I am 
surprised that this was not under- 
stood. In English, as in mathematics, 
if two parts of a known series contain 
the same term — and with a known 
sequence this must be as the last term 
in one sequence and the first in the 
other — then that term is common to 
the two sequences. In Britain, 
Michaelmas is a religious festival 
which follows the Autumn (Fall) 
Equinox in the same way that Christ- 
mas follows the Winter Solstice. The 
word is also used more loosely for the 
weeks around Michaelmas Sunday. It 
is the name of the first term of the 
year at Oxford and for many schools 
and colleges which ape Oxford. 

The university term is always called 
"Michaelmas term" and never just 



"Michaelmas". Unless the 'saint's' day' 
is obviously meant, "Michaelmas" 
always means the Michaelmas season 
or "time". Like Easter time and 
Christmas time, this is thought of as 
extending for about twelve days on 
either side of the actual festival day. 
Thus around a third of Michaelmas is 
in September. 
John Docherty 

wt 

3K 



The Oxford term is based on Old 
Michaelmas Day which, according to 
my British Almanac for 1858, was 1 1 
October. Oxford Terms are short, 
usually eight weeks long, but now 
extended with Nought Week and 
Ninth Week for various University 
events, but not tutorials, seminars and 
lectures. In 1859, Michaelmas Term 
began on Monday 1 1 October and 
lasted until Friday 17 December. In 
1860, Michaelmas Term began on 
Monday 10 October and ended on 
Saturday 17 December. (New Michael- 
mas Day is 29 September and has no 
bearing on the Oxford Terms.) Cam- 
bridge University also has Michaelmas 
Term, and this follows closely the 
Oxford term, usually a day or so dif- 
ferent. So, let me confirm, Michael- 
mas to Dodgson and Oxford folk runs 
from October to December as previ- 
ously stated. 

Edward Wakeling 



-^^. 



^^ 



3n idlemoriam 

Philip Dodgson Jaques 
1919 -January 14, 2003 

Lewis Carroll's great-nephew Philip Dodgson Jaques (pronounced 
"Jakes"), descended from Carroll's brother, Skeffington Hume Dodgson, was 
for many years the Senior Executor of the C. L. Dodgson Estate. He was re- 
sponsible for, among many other things, placing the family's collection on 
permanent loan in Guildford and for depositing nine volumes of Dodgson's 
Journals (diaries) into the British Library. He was also one of the participants 
on the "Twelve Carroll Scholars Read Alice, with Jabberwocky' in Six Tongues" 
cassette put out by the L. C. S.Japan to benefit The Dodgson Gravesites Pro- 
ject {KI^ 55, p. 12). His daughter, Caroline Luke, took over his duties as Execu- 
tor a few years back and will continue on. Jaques departed this life on the same 
date as his illustrious great-uncle, although more than a century later. 



^^ 



^^ 



33 



Ravings }:roo) The Wmring Desk 



OF Alan Tannenbaum 



Those of you who were able to join us in Chicago in April 
were treated to a frabjous series of activities and a run of 
good weather. I'm sure you've read the synopsis of the 
meeting earlier in this issue, but I want to thank Joel 
Birenbaum and his wife Debbie, on behalf of the Society, 
for all they did to make the meeting at the Newberry Li- 
brary and the pre- and post-meeting events a great success. 

Two events are worth noting for those of you who 
could not attend in person: The Maxine Schaefer Memor- 
ial Outreach Fund is succeeding in its goals to bring our 
favorite subject to children; this time to the classes at the 
Greenman School in Aurora, IL. Maxine would be very 
proud to see how many children are touched by the read- 
ings the Society performs and the books we put into their 
hands and homes. The Society is benefiting greatly by hav- 
ing the Stan Marx Memorial Fund sponsor outstanding lec- 
tures such as the one by Prof. Douglas Hofstadter. Please 
remember these funds as you send in your next dues. 

As for the new format of the Knight Letter, I trust you 
will agree that we've evolved, yet again, to a new degree of 
professionalism (not to take away anything from previous 
issues). As I mentioned in the previous issue, the KL is 
one of the key faces of the Society, along with the publica- 
tion programs, meetings, and the web site. It is also the 
primary benefit of membership for the vast number of 
members who cannot always travel to the semi-annual 



meetings, and to this end we have made a conscious effort 
to improve the value of the publication. Mark Burstein 
continues to head this endeavor as Editor and I hope you 
will share your praise and constructive comments with him. 
The Autumn meeting is shaping up nicely. Both Pro- 
fessors Morton Cohen and Edward Wakeling, two of the 
finest Lewis Carroll scholars, will be with us at the Fales Li- 
brary at New York University on October 25"'. They will 
have a new book out about Lewis Carroll and his illustra- 
tors, and each will give a talk about his relationships and 
collaborations with them. One talk will deal with Lewis 
Carroll as artist, his ideas for the illustrations (his "mind's 
eye"), and his aesthetic requirements. We also plan to hear 
Andrew Sellon, a well-known actor in Carrollian circles, 
perform an extended reading of his piece on Charles 
Dodgson. As is now a tradition, there will be a reading for 
children, and the donation of books, sponsored by the 
Maxine Schaefer Fund. If all goes well, we will combine 
this with a Stan Marx Fund event in Stan's own town on 
Long Island. Finally, in addition to some organized gas- 
tronomic events, the next Auction of Books and Things 
Carrollian will take place to benefit the publications pro- 
grams of the LCSNA (and your own collections!). Details 
are on the facing page, so search out those treasures, and 
by all means mark your calendars for this ambitious pro- 
gram. 



In the brilliant black comedy Dogma 
(igpc)) the fallen angel "Loki" (Matt 
Damon) is getting off an airplane, talk- 
ing to a nun. 

Nun: Let me get this straight. You 
don't believe in God because of Alice 
in Wonderland? 

I. OKI: No, Through the Looking-Glass. 
That poem, "The Walrus and the 
Carpenter", that's an indictment of 
organized religion. The Walrus, with 
his girth and his good nature — he 
obviously represents either Buddha 
or, with his tusks, the Hindu elephant 
god. Lord Ganesha. That takes care of 
your Eastern religions. Now, the Car- 
penter, which was an obvious refer- 
ence to Jesus Christ who was raised a 
carpenter's son, he represents the 
Western religions. Now, in the poem, 
what do they do? They dupe all the.se 
oysters into following them and then 
proceed to shuck and devour the 
helpless creatures en masse. Now I 



-^^ 




34 



don't know what that says to you, but 
to me it says that following these 
faiths based on mythological figures 
ensures the destruction of one's inner 
being. Organized religion destroys 
who we are by inhibiting our actions, 
by inhibiting our decisions out of fear 
of some intangible parent figure who 
shakes his finger at us from thousands 
of years ago and says, "Do it and I'll 
*!#%'^~ spank you." 
nun: The way you put it ... I've never 
really thought about it like that be- 
fore. What have I been doing with my 
life? 

Screenplay by Kevin Smith 

3is 



The carefully-shaped nonsense, by 
which Dodgson sought to build a 
bridge into a realm which he and Al- 
ice could innocently and delightedly 
share, was a perilously fragile struc- 
ture, and the Wonderland into 
which it led was not really what it ap- 
peared to be. Although it was the 
most fantastic realm imaginable by 
one of the most ingenious minds of 
its era, there was, in the end, far too 
much of the mature in it. The Alice 
books constitute one of the most 
heroic attempts ever made to get away 
from the stifling straitjacket of the 
here and now, but they were bound to 
fail. That failure is, in fact, a uniquely 
marvelous example of the dictum that 
although truth is certainly stranger 
than fiction, fiction is — according to 
its fashion — truer. 

Brian Stableford 

St. James Guide to Fantasy Writers 

St. James Press, 1996 



'ociet^ /\nno(]ncen)ents 



lights! camera! auction! 

The Auction of Books and Things 
Carrollian planned for Chicago, will 
instead take place at the New York 
meeting on October 25*, the pro- 
ceeds to benefit the LCSNA. Please 
show your support of our fine organi- 
zation and its outreach programs by 
donating a few of your nonessential 
or duplicate items. 

Joel and Patt Griffin will be putting 
together an informal catalog of the 
items to be auctioned. Please get a 
description of the items and their 
approximate value to Joel Birenbaum 
(contact information below) no later 
than September 13"'. 

If you strongly feel a reserve or 
minimum bid is necessary on an item, 
please state so and tell him the 
amount. This means that if the bid- 
ding does not reach that figure, the 
item will not be sold, but returned to 
you (at your expense). 

The catalog will be sent to parties 
requesting one in advance, and mail 
or e-mail bids will be accepted from 
those who will not be at the meeting. 
These will be handled as proxy bids by 
the auctioneer or his assistant. 

If you will be at the Fall meeting 
in NY, please bring the items with you. 

If you will not be at the Fall meet- 
ing, please send them to Janet Jurist 
by October 11"'. Her mailing address 
is 510 East 86"' Street, New York, NY 
10028. 

If you wish to have a catalog in ad- 
vance, please let Joel know. 

You can reach Joel at jbiren- 
baum@att.net or 2765 Shellingham 
Drive, Lisle IL 60532 or 630.637-8530. 

The last auction, at Wake Forest 
in 1994, was quite successful. Please be 
generous! 



CALLING ALL MEMBERS! 

Charlie Lovett 

The Publications Committee is ex- 
cited to announce a major restructur- 
ing that will help us deal more suc- 
cessfully with the challenges of 
publishing in the twenty-first centur)'. 
In the next few months, we hope to 
establish four subcommittees, which 




will give members a chance to partici- 
pate in this important work of the 
Society. Take a look at the subcommit- 
tees below and see if your personal 
skills or experience make you quali- 
fied to assist in one of these areas. If 
you'd like to be a part of this exciting 
endeavor, please contact Charlie 
Lovett at 336.724-5627 or 
clovett@triad.rr.com. 

Product Development: This subcom- 
mittee will screen manuscripts and 
ideas for publications, commission 



works, and find contributors for our 
publications. 

Editorial: This subcommittee will 
shape manuscripts, see that they are 
screened by outside readers, hire 
copyeditors, and help projects move 
from the initial manuscript stage to 
the pre-press stage. 

Production: This subcommittee will 
coordinate with printers and other 
production contractors to turn manu- 
scripts into books or electronic publi- 
cations. 

Distribution: Possibly the most impor- 
tant subcommittee, and certainly the 
most labor-intensive. We need mem- 
bers who can set up and run an e- 
commerce site, seek out advertising 
and other publicity opportunities, 
and fulfill customer orders. 

Please consider becoming involved 
in the LCSNA by joining one of these 
subcommittees. We look forward to 
continuing our tradition of quality 
publication as we approach our 
fourth decade. 




35 



THE DICKENS YOU SAY! 
(part II ) 
M^en you mention Carroll to the 
average Joe Sixpak, he will undoubt- 
edly raise that baseless canard about 
Carroll's putatively inappropriate 
affection towards young girls. Even 
though Karoline Leach provided 
much groundbreaking research into 
the question, it has been Hugues 
Lebailly of the Sorbonne who has the 
definitive refutation. In his talk 
"Charles Lutwidge Dodgson's Infatua- 
tion with the Weaker and More Aes- 
thetic Sex Reexamined" presented to 
the LCSNA in April 2001, the thrust 
was that "It is high time the image of 
one of the greatest Victorian writers 
be washed from such outrageous and 
ungrounded suspicions." 

Reprinted in essay form, as prom- 
ised in the Knight Letter 69, p. 22, it is 
now available in hardcover as Volume 
32 of the scholarly Dickens Studies 
Annual: Essays on Victorian Fiction. It 
can be obtained from AMS Press, 
Inc., Brooklyn Navy Yard, Bdg. 292, 
Suite 417, 63 Flushing Avenue, Brook- 
lyn NY 11205; fax: (212) 995-5413; 
amserve@earthlink.net. Ordering is 
"more like a corkscrew than a path": 
first you must get in touch with them 
and they will send you a pro-forma 
invoice, which you send back etc. The 
list price is $121.50; however, you can 
easily convince them to lower that to 
$35. This is an essential piece for all 
Carrollians to own! 



IN A FUNK 
Ruth Berman 

The January issue of Poetry has a re- 
view by John Taylor of a book of 
poems by Erica Funkhouser, Pursuit, 
published by Houghton Mifflin. Part 
of the review says: 

The emotional depth of her ini- 
tially more "objective" [i.e., more 
objective than the poems about her 
family, discussed in preceding section 
of the review] nature poetry can be 
detected in four telltale lines from 
"The Chronicle of the Turkey". 
"Alice's question / to the Queen," 
recalls Funkhouser in this key poem, 
"was 'Can you keep / from crying / 
by considering things?'." This multi- 




ple allusion to Alice's "Wonderland", 
to Lewis Carroll (here in his double 
role of fantasist and logical philoso- 
pher), and to the distance ever sepa- 
rating a human being from Nature, 
from material things, functions like 
an epigraph presiding over much of 
the collection. In fact, a human being 
can "consider" things only from afar; 
the very etymology of the verb, which 
both Carroll and Funkhouser empha- 
size, suggests "star-gazing". The clos- 
est things — at hand's reach, at our 
fingertips, even in our hands — are 
still light-years away. And the question 
implicitly raised in Pursuit is whether 
the studied contemplation of natural 
things (that are, by definition, rigor- 
ously distinct from us) can ultimately 
assuage our despair. By such "pur- 
suits," can we at least forget ourselves 
temporarily? 



HOW SWEET IT ISN T 

Stephanie Lovett 

One inevitably turns the last page of 
Matthew Sweet's Inventing the Victori- 
ans, St. Martin's Press, 2001, mutter- 
ing Plus qa change . . . Even for the 
Carrollian who deals frequently and 
comfortably with the nineteenth cen- 
tury, this book offers a healthy correc- 
tive to the tendency to oversimplify 
and romanticize the past that perhaps 
must result to some degree when we 
try to grasp an era in its totality. Sweet 
appears to make good use of primary 
and secondary sources in his amusing 
and appalling depictions of all-too- 
familiar features of life, such as mar- 
keting gimmicks (Woman in White 
perfume, racing sloops with 



"Beechams Pills" emblazoned on their 
sails), sensational journalism, and DIY 
[Do It Yourself] advice (an 1890 proto- 
Martha Stewart wants you to turn an 
ordinary drain pipe into an elegant 
plant stand). However, to leap straight 
to what you were wondering, he does 
not appear to have applied much by 
the way of research skills to his brief 
description of Charles Dodgson as a 
paedophile against whom there seems 
to be a substantial amount of 
evidence (his sources are three news- 
paper and magazine articles from the 
1990s). This passage is in the context 
of an otherwise quite good analysis of 
ambivalent attitudes towards children 
in both the Victorian era and the 
present. Unfortunate, but so off-the- 
shelf as to be unremarkable. 

A much more interesting tidbit for 
the Carroll enthusiast is to be found 
in his chapter on motion pictures. 
^A^lile the name Hubert von 
Herkomer is familiar as the artist of 
the Dodgson portrait that hangs in 
Hall at Christ Church, he was in fact 
an important figure in the history of 
film. The tale of Herkomer negotiat- 
ing with Thomas Hardy for the film 
rights to Far from the Madding Croiud, 
including the doing of lunch, breaks 
down any limited notion of what con-t 
stitutes modernity. Therein lies the 
value of this book: the analysis is well 
done, but what is so striking is paging 
through this collection of vivid photos 
and clippings of the real life of a time 
not long, but irrevocably, gone — a 
true Victorian scrapbook. 



CRIMSON TIDINGS 

Matt Demakos 

On the last day of February, I received 
a private e-mail from Michel Faber, 
the author of The Crimson Petal and the 
White (2002). I had asked him to de- 
tail how the Alice sioYies were "not just 
overtly" referred to in the novel, "but 
also woven into the plot," as he had 
claimed in an earlier letter. With his 
permission, I quote his response. In 
Faber's novel. Sugar, a prostitute in 
London of the 1870s, becomes the 
sole property of the perfumer William 
Rackham, the husband of Agnes and 



36 



the father of the seven-year-old So- 
phie. Faber writes: 

The Alice books work on many 
levels, but one of the main issues they 
address is identity and how we define 
and verify who we are. These con- 
cerns are central to Crimson Petal too. 
At the beginning, Sugar has a fiercely 
rigid sense of who she is; the more 
she becomes involved with the Rack- 
hams, the more that sense is eroded. 

WTien Sophie, havingjust been 
introduced to Carroll's book, is struck 
by the part where Alice says "Who in 
the world am I? Ah, that's the great 
puzzle!", she might as well be speak- 
ing for Sugar as for herself. 

Carroll is constantly playing with 
shifts of perspective, urging his child 
readers to turn the world upside- 
down, or put it against a mirror, and 
perceive it afresh. He understands a 
child's dilemmas of cognition and 
definition, and in Crimson Petal So- 
phie is shown to be at this same devel- 
opmental stage. The scene where 
she's taken out to London for the first 
time, for example: 

"In the street, gentlemen and 
ladies stroll, each one of them differ- 
ent, adding up to hundreds and hun- 
dreds. A horse and carriage passes on 
the other side of the road, a polished 
wooden and metal cabin full of myste- 
rious strangers, pulled by an animal 
with hoofs. Yet Sophie understands 
that the two carriages, at the moment 
of passing, are like mirror-images of 
each other; to those mysterious 
strangers, she is the dark mystery, and 
they are the Sophies. Does her father 
understand this? Does Miss Sugar? . . . 
'You've grown so big,' remarks 
William, out of the blue. 'You've sh- 
shot up in no time at all. How have 
you m-managed it, hmm?' .... So- 
phie keeps her eyes on her father's 
knees: this question is like the ones in 
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland: im- 
possible to answer." 

Carroll uses physical discomforts to 
indicate Alice's crises; these are used 
in Crimson Petal too. There's a lot of 
stuff about no longer fitting into 
clothes (Sophie because of her rapid 
growth. Sugar because of her preg- 
nancy) . WTien Sugar first comes to 
the Rackham house and has uneasy 



dreams in a bed that's too small for 
her, there are echoes of the 
Goldilocks story, of course, but also of 
Carroll's spatial anxiety. 

The passage: "/ am going to grow 
bigger than my Mama, [Sophie] thinks, 
not defiantly, nor competitively, but 
because she has fathomed that her 
body is different in nature from her 
mother's, and not destined to be 
petite. It's as if she was fed a morsel of 
Alice's Wonderland cake when she 
was a baby, and instead of shooting up 
to the ceiling in seconds, she is ex- 
panding the tiniest amount each 
minute of her life, an expansion that 
won't stop until she's very big 
indeed — as big as Miss Sugar, or her 
father" invites us to think about 
growth of all kinds — spiritual and 
physical — as well as what cuts growth 
short — death. 

The allusions to eat me and drink 
ME are, in Crimson Petal, sexualised. As 
we see Sophie innocently considering 
them, we are aware that in the real 
world there are plenty of predators 
who are impatient to consume her. 

Carroll is also big on nightmare 
visions. There are plenty of those in 
Crimson Petal, often inhabited by 
CarroUian grotesques like Mrs Cast- 
away [Sugar's mother and brothel 
madam], who could be a human 
version of a Tenniel illustration. In 
the last third of the book, there's a lot 
of dreaming and delirium, which is 
sometimes explicitly linked to Car- 
roll's book (for example, the refer- 
ence to Sophie having "already fallen 
down the rabbit-hole of unconscious- 
ness, into an uneasy wonderland of 
her own") but is implicit throughout. 

On one level, the scene where 
Sophie is taken to the photographers' 
studio and thinks "of the part in 
Alice's Adventures -where the Cat says 
'We're all mad here'" is sheer fun — a 
wide-eyed vision of a "London full of 
mad photographers and sandwich- 
board-men who look like the playing- 
card courtiers of the Queen of 
Hearts." But on a deeper level, it 
invites us to speculate about madness 
and how prevalent it is — Mrs Castaway 
is clearly psychotic, Agnes is mentally 
ill, Sophie has inherited an instinct 
for superstition which may well signal 



similar problems in her future, and 
Emmeline Fox undergoes a strange 
dissolution and metamorphosis after 
her bereavement (although she's in 
some ways a stronger person for it). 
Agnes 's delirious outbursts of honesty, 
in which she insults people mortally, 
tap into a similar vein of transgressive- 
ness that Carroll exploits in the outra- 
geously "rude" characters who berate 
Alice. 

As far as the plot of Crimson Petal 
goes, the following passage is particu- 
larly significant: 

"She's working her way through 
Alice's Adventures In Wonderland too, a 
chapter at a time, re-reading each 
episode over and over until she has 
either memorised it or understood it, 
whichever comes first. It's quite the 
strangest tale she's ever read, but 
there must be a reason why her gov- 
erness has given it to her, and the 
more she reads it, the more accus- 
tomed she grows to its terrors, until 
the animals seem almost as friendly as 
Mr Lear's. Judging from the illustra- 
tions in the later parts she hasn't read 
yet, the story may be heading for a 
violent end, but she'll find out when 
she gets there, and the final three 
words are 'happy summer days', 
which can't be too bad." 

This plot arc and imagined resolu- 
tion specifically invites comparison 
with that of Crimson Petal itself — that 
is, it in\ites us to ask whether the 
characters in Crimson Petal are headed 
for a violent end or whether they are 
rewarded with a sunny resolution. We 
think of Agnes and her fantasies of a 
pastoral paradise — does she achieve 
them, or are her "sunshine days" 
confined to the nostalgic photograph 
that William cannibalises for his men- 
dacious 'family' portrait? Do Sugar 
and Sophie get their happy ending or 
are they doomed to poverty and 
degradation? 

In the Carroll books, Alice is fre- 
quently (sometimes literally) "out of 
her depth", expected to understand 
things she could not possibly under- 
stand, and nurture — or rescue — 
creatures she cannot possibly nurture 
or rescue. Nurture and rescue are at 
the heart of Crimson Petal too, in the 
complicated interdependence of 



37 



Agnes, Sugar and Sophie. The part 
where the tiny child Sophie must 
'rescue' the fallen Sugar from the 
floor of the factory latrine is a particu- 
larly charged moment of topsy-turvy- 
ness. 

I'm sure there are other parallels, 
but these are the ones I recalled by 
using an automatic word search 



("Alice") through the text in my PC. 
Other parallels would not necessarily 
be signalled by a specific allusion to 
Alice. Bodley and Ashwell, for exam- 
ple, are clearly a Tweedledee/Twee- 
dledum pair. 

Some other word searches may 
interest Carroll fans. For example, 
Sugar writes a chilling sex novel in 



"purple ink" and the narrator uses the 
phrase "mad as a march hare" along 
with the words "burbled" (a word 
Carroll may have thought of as his 
own invention) and "chortling" (his 
own invention). 




■^^ 



Carrollim Notes 




ADDENDA, ERRATA, 
CORRIGENDA, & ILLUMINATA 

In the article "Alice in Catalan" by 
Maria Gonzalez Davies {KL 70 ppA2- 
16), an important footnote was inad- 
vertently omitted. It read: "Research 
carried out thanks to a grant awarded 
by the Direccion General de Ciencia y 
Tecnologia: DGCYT BFF2000-1281." 



THE MILLER S TALE 

The long-awaited release of Jonathan 
Miller's sophisticated and subversive 
AWmade for BBCl in 1966 and star- 
ring Wilfrid Brambell, Peter Cook, 
Peter Sellers, Alan Bennett, Sir 
Michael Redgrave, Sir John Gielgud, 
Leo McKern, and Malcolm 
Muggeridge is a fait accompli! The 
movie itself is 72 minutes and, as a 
special bonus, you also get eight min- 
utes from the 1903 Hepworth film. 
The DVD includes the insightful di- 
rector's commentary, a stills gallery, 
and a biography of Jonathan Miller. 
On DVD (£20) and VHS (£13). 
Order from www.bfi.org.uk/videocat/ 
more/alice/. 

And now, two bits of bad news: of 
course the DVD is Region 2 encoded, 
and the videotape is PAL formatted, 
so these will not play on standard 
American machines. Second, Edward 
Wakeling writes, "You might want to 
warn prospective customers that the 



Miller/ Hepworth DVD has an error on 
it that makes it impossible to view the 
1903 Hepworth film in sequence — the 
screen freezes up on a number of occa- 
sions. I telephoned the distributor, only 
to be told that I wasn't the first to point 
this out. I asked whether they intended 
to remedy this fault — and answer came 
there none!" 



THE SEA IS BOILING HOT 

. . . and pigs can grow wings! "The Pig 
Wings Project", by three Australian 
"biotechnology artists" working to- 
gether as the "Tissue Culture &: Art 
Project", used living cells from pigs to 
create three pairs of wing-shaped 
objects, each about an inch long. Lit 
by intensely colored LEDs and on 
display at the DeCordova Museum in 
Lincoln, Massachusetts through May 
25''', the wings were grown during a 
year-long artist residency with Dr. 
Joseph Vacanti, of Harvard Medical 
School and the Tissue Engineering 
and Organ Fabrication Laboratory at 
Massachusetts General Hospital, who 
caused a flap in 1995 by growing a 
human-scale ear on the back of a 
mouse. Despite the temptation to 
wonder about the veracity of the proj- 
ect due to the artist's names (Oron 
Catts, lonat Zurr, and Guy Ben-Ary) , 
this was reported in due seriousness 
by the Nexv York Times, March 16"', 



2003, in the article "Pigs Won't Fly, 
But Questions May" by Ann Wilson 
Lloyd. The three wings are called 
Aves, Chiroplera, and Pterosaur {bird, 
bat and reptile). 



Sic, sic, sic 

Reviewing the "Leonardo da Vinci: 
Master Draftsman" exhibition at NY- 
MoMA ( Time Magazine, Feb. 3, 2003, 
"He Drew Like an Angel"), critic 
Robert Hughes had this to say: "There 
are some amazingly ugly subjects, like 
the imaginary 'Bust of Grotesque Man 
in Profile Facing to the Right.' 
Leonardo delighted in these. The 
pleasure that he took in human ugli- 
ness was almost as intense as the de- 
light afforded him by the spectacle of 
beauty . . . And yet it is difficult to 
look at his numerous drawings of 
horribly, freakishly ugly old people — 
which would be assiduously copied by 
other artists (as comic emblems? as 
homages? who knows?) and would 
make a final appearance during the 
Victorian age in the triumphantly 
hideous image of the Red Queen in 
Alice in Wonderland — without sensing 
that Leonardo's peculiar and sadistic 
imagination is at a big remove from 
ours." 

[The Red Queen ? Surely he meant the 
Duchess. Besides, the Red Queen is from 
Looking-Glass. This from a magazine 



38 



that, just afezv months back, informed the 
public that Carroll's real name was Arthur 
Dodgson (KL yo p. 26). Tsk.] 



^ 

Derrydale is to be highly commended 
for publishing an exquisite facsimile 
(2001,0517218658) of the 1908 AW 
with illustrations by Harry Rountree. 
Would someone like to explain how it 
ended up with a cover drawing of 
Alice by . . . Arthur Rackham? 



m. 

In Fairfax Count)', Virginia, which is 
one of Washington, DCs neighboring 
suburban counties, developers in 
1973 named their subdivision "Won- 
derland" but curiously got some of 
the street names wrong, e.g. 'Yellow 
Brick Road". 

m 

Wm. 



In a paper given to a conference for 
the International Playing Card Society 
& Asescoin (Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain, 
home of the museum of playing 
cards) in September, 1994, and pub- 
lished in their Proceedings (Museo 
"Fournier" de Naipes de Alava, 1994), 
Jean Verame states "After having 
underlined the paradoxical absence 
of commentaries on the playing card 
sequences in Alice when all other 
aspects have been dissected, I must 
stress a fact even more incomprehen- 
sible: I insist, not one deck of cards 
inspired by Alice was ever put on the 
market, no creation was ever made." 

[Of course, the De La Rue cards were first 
issued circa iSg/f and there have been 
dozens since (see Selwyn Goodacre's article 
mjabberwocky. Vol. 22, No.^, Issue 8^, 
Summer igg^ and the write-up of the LCS 
Canada's m.eeting ?'n Wliite Rabbit Tales 
No. 22, 2001).] 



m 

SIGHT IMPAIRED 

Sarah Adams 
"Alice in Wonderland" 

Blindfaith Theatre @ Angel Island 
Chicago, IL April 5 - May 10, 2003 

An early clue as to the tone of this 
production can be taken from the 
cover of the playbill, which states: 
"Adapted by Andre Gregory and the 
Manhattan Project, Directed by Nick 
Minas, Violence Designby R&D 



Choreography". On entering the tiny 
theater, the audience found most of 
the cast moaning, yelling, and 
writhing on the stage, dressed in 
white pajamas and, in some cases, 
straitjackets; obviously patients in an 
insane asylum. 

The plot, which actually includes 
both Alicehook?>, is presented as hallu- 
cinations/memories of Alice, includ- 
ing sexual molestation by Dodgson. 
While obviously disturbing, the play is 
also darkly comic, though I wasn't 
always sure which it was supposed to 
be (not unlike the original!). The first 
act includes the asylum and an en- 
counter with Dodgson, the fall down 
the rabbit hole, the pool of tears and 
caucus-race scene (the crab perform- 
ed with clicking castanets), the cater- 
pillar (amusingly played by all seven 
ensemble actors), the duchess and 
the pig-baby, and the mad tea party. 
Act II starts with the Queen's croquet 
game, where Alice's arguments with 
the Red Queen lead to her falling 
through the looking glass (!). She 
then comes across the White Queen 
pricking her finger, the Sheep Shop 
(with the ensemble passing the egg 
back and forth through open and 
closed hands) , Humpty Dumpty, a 
lengthy scene with the WTiite Knight, 
and the crowning of Queen Alice, 
which returns her to reality and the 
asylum. 

The acting is extremely physical, 
with the actors throwing themselves 
and the other actors around (if you 
look carefully you can see the knee- 
pads under the pajamas). For exam- 
ple, the fall down the rabbit hole is 
performed by Alice being rapidly 
carried through the encircling arms 
of the other cast members. The few 
props and the backdrop of white 
sheets both reinforce the feeling of 
being enclosed by blank walls and 
remind us that the story depends on 
the actors' ability and the audience's 
imagination to succeed. 

[The company unfortunately did not 
contact the Society in time to give more 
people the opportunity to plan to attend a 
performance while we xuere in Chicago. For 
more on the original Gregory production, 
including interxneivs, the script, and 
photos by Richard Avedon, see The Man- 



hattan Project's P^'-. The Forming of a 
Company and the Making of a Play 
(Merlin House, 1973, 0-88306-500-2). 

3i^ 



A STAR-STUDDED READING 

Sarah Adams 

This two-CD set of AWwas originally a 
radio play, a presentation of Santa 
Monica's public radio station KCRW. 
The story is narrated by Harry 
Shearer, "KCRW's resident satirist" 
and vocal talent for the Simpsons TV 
show. (WTiile he does a nice job, it 
does take a while to get the idea out 
of one's head that the story is being 
told by Kent Brockman!) Simpsons 
fans will be also interested to know 
that both the Dodo and the Knave of 
Hearts are played by Dan ("Homer") 
Castellaneta. Other well-known actors 
include Elliott Gould as the Cheshire 
Cat, Rhea Perlman as the Dormouse, 
and Malcolm McDowell as the 
Gryphon. Although listeners who 
really "know their Alice" will notice 
that certain lines and paragraphs of 
the story are missing, and there are 
some jarring Americanisms, such as 
"waist-coat" instead of "weskit", the 
two-hour production presents the 
majorit)' of the book intact. Original 
music and sound effects, such as 
shimmering bells as the Cheshire Cat 
appears and disappears and a slight 
voice distortion as Alice recites "How 
doth the little crocodile", enhance 
the story nicely. The tale is presented 
lightly and humorously, suitable for 
children without boring the adults. 

[The CD is packaged with drawings from 
theDeLoss McGraw edition {KL 67 p.21 ) 
and can be purchased online at wunv.kcriu. 
org/alice/ or (888) 600-KCRW only by 
subscribing at a$^o level and choosing it 
as your premium. ] 



m 

MIDNIGHT COWGIRL 

Sarah Adams 

Robert E. Lee's "Alice Underground" 
is a short film depicting Alice's adven- 
tures through the wild and psyche- 
delic world of Manhattan bars and 
clubs. The film, made up of a succes- 
sion of still digital photographs shown 
quickly enough to suggest movement, 
is intended to be reminiscent of a 
drug-induced state. 

39 



Telling her parents (note the large 
chess set they are playing with) that 
she is going to a European film with a 
friend, Alice instead goes to a club 
where the bartender gives her a cock- 
tail laced with drugs. As she drinks it 
(and remarks upon its flavor of 
cherry-tart, custard, pineapple, and 
roast turkey), the bartender grows 
whiskers. The WTiite Rabbit appears 
in the form of a Playboy bunny club- 
goer. Alice races out of the club after 
her, but loses her, instead finding 
Tweedledee and Tweedledum in 
Hawaiian shirts, and a homeless Mock 
Turtle. She catches sight of the White 
Rabbit again, and catches a cab to 
follow her. As she and the driver talk, 
we notice that he is wearing armor. At 
the next bar, the Cat/bartender pours 
her more drinks, and she encounters 
the March Hare, the mad Hatter, and 
the Dormouse, as they drink shot 
after shot from the many bottles on 
the table in front of them. Outside, 
she finds a Beat poet caterpillar smok- 



ing a hookah, who tells her not to be 
afraid of thejabberwocky (sic), as she 
is the one who created it. She runs 
into the White Queen (her friend 
Bianca) and the Queen of Hearts (a 
socialite) and her entourage. Back in 
a bar, the taxi driver/White Knight 
urges Alice to go home where it is 
safe, the Cheshire Cat pours her more 
drinks, and the Mad Hatter tells her 
that only she can defeat thejabber- 
wocky. At last she confronts thejab- 
berwocky (whose growls sound re- 
markably like a bubbling bong or 
hookah pipe...), and the White 
Knight fights it for her. Apparently it 
is defeated, for we next see Alice wak- 
ing up in the morning light under the 
AWstatue in Central Park. The taxi 
driver, no longer the WTiite Knight, 
drives her home to her parents. 

WThile the technique of the succes- 
sion of still shots is interesting, and 
lends itself well to the appearance 
and disappearance of the various 
characters, it can be distracting, lead- 



ing one to wonder if people really 
move their heads and hands that 
much or if the actors were forced to 
flap them around to increase the 
appearance of motion. The opening 
scene with Alice and her parents is 
narrated, and between this and the 
stop-motion, it is hard to tell if the 
comments about their wealth and 
educational advantages are deliber- 
ately designed to give the feeling of a 
junior-high filmstrip ("The Dangers 
of Being Young, Wealthy, and Beauti- 
ful in New York", perhaps?). The 
muddy soundtrack doesn't help mat- 
ters. 

[As mentioned in KL yo p.^ i, you can 
purchase a VHS copy for $20 from the 
filmmaker at www. angelfire. com/film/ 
aliceunderground/. It is packaged with a 
ten-minute documentary, "The Effect of 
Living Backward" on the making of the 
film. The film has won several Indepen- 
dent Film awards.] 




BOOKS 

Douglas Hofstadter's Godel, Es- 
cher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid: 
A metaphorical fugue on minds and 
machines in the spirit of Lewis Car- 
rollhdLS been republished in a 
Twentieth Anniversary Edition 
with a new preface by the author. 
$21. Basic Books (1999); ISBN 
0465026567. 

The "other" Victorian shutter- 
bug, Julia Margaret Cameron 
(1815-79), is having a banner 
year with four new books: JMC: Pioneer 
Photographerhy]oyMeWi]\e (Sutton 
Publishing, 2003, $20, 0750932295), 
detailing her and Dodgson's talking 
behind each other's backs; Victoria 
Olsen's From Life: JMC and Victorian 
Photography (Aurum Press, 2003 
[U.K.] / Palgrave Macmillan, October 
2003 [U.S.], $30, 1403960194) dis- 
cusses Carroll's criticism of her photo- 
graphs — Cameron said of her own 
photographs "The like have never 
been produced and never can be 
surpassed."; /MC- A Critical Biography 
(Getty Trust, 2003, 0-89236-707-5, 



^^ 








$50) by Colin Ford, a companion to 
JMC: The Complete Photographs (J. Paul 
Getty Museum, 2003, $150, 0-89236- 
681-8) — see Exhibitions, beloxv. 

AWwith the Snark, a mini-bio, and 
twenty color plates by Italian artist 
Cinzia Ratto. Borders Press (U.S.) or 
Templar Classics (U.K.), September 
2002. 1-84011-409-6. $12. 

Two nicely illustrated editions en Fran- 
fflw available from www.amazon.fr: AW 
translated and illustrated by Anne 
Herbauts, Casterman, 2002, 2-203- 
56518-7, €22; and a bilingual Snark, 
illustrated by Julio Pomar, tr. by 



Gerard Gacon, 2-7291-1281-2, 
€29, pub. by La Difference (La 
Double Vue), 1999. 

The Golden Ratio by Mario Livio 
has a brief discussion about Mar- 
tin Gardner's thoughts on Alice's 
"four time five is twelve" speech. 
Broadway Books (2002); 
0767908155. 

The Company by Robert Littell {KL 
69, p. 24) in now in a Penguin 
paperback with a new cover. Alice 

is seen in a keyhole representing the 

letter "o" in Company. 

The Riemann Hypothesis: The Greatest 
Unsolved Problem in Mathematics by Karl 
Sabbagh (Farrar Straus & Giroux, 
2003): "... and modern mathematics 
has creations that might well have 
been plucked from Alice's Adventures 
in Mathland, if there were such a 
book." The author then lists "the 
gliding hump", "hairy ball theorem", 
some infinities that are bigger than 
other infinities, and "100% not repre- 
senting all". 



40 



The Victorians hy A.. N. Wilson (Nor- 
ton, 2003). "I took a quick skim of the 
end of the chapter where CLD is dis- 
cussed, and what the writer says 
there is appaUing — something to the 
effect that (paraphrasing as carefully 
as my memory allows) 'anyone who 
has read his diaries and letters . . . 
would know that Carroll had abso- 
lutely no real sympathy with chil- 
dren', and in the last sentence of the 
chapter dismisses him by saying he 
can't imagine any child would give 
the time of day to such a 'dull, dry 
stick of a man'. It seems Wilson is 
more fond of making pronounce- 
ments than actually researching CLD. 
I was so irritated that I didn't look at 
the rest of the book, as this example 
makes me suspect the integrity of the 
whole." -Andrew Sellon 

Jabberwocky, illustrated in color by Joel 
Stewart, Candlewick Press, 2003, $16. 
0-7636-2018-1. Visit it on his website 
www.moonsheep. co.uk/joel/jabber4 
.html. 

Alice's Pop-Up Theater Book "with six 
amazing pop-up scenes and over 30 
press-out pieces", Macmillan 2002. 0- 
333-96137-4. Front cover credits Nick 
Denchfield (paper engineer) and 
Alex Vining (illustrator). A theater 
pops out with scenes and characters 
based on the Wallis-colored Tenniel 
drawings and "encourages children to 
act out". [Not always the wisest thing to 
encourage children to do.] 

A review by David Honigmann of 
scholar novelist/critic Marina 
Warner's new book Fantastic Metamor- 
phoses, Other Worlds: Ways of Telling the 
5^//" (Oxford University Press, 2002) in 
The Financial Times (Oct. 26, 2002) 
notes that Warner examines how "the 
transformations of Sylvie and Bruno 
and of Wonderland and the Looking- 
Glass parallel the effects of early pho- 
tography." 

Victorian Literature and the Anorexic 
Body by A. K. Silver, Cambridge Uni- 
versity Press, 2002, includes "Lewis 
Carroll's Hungry Dream-Child", as 
part of Chapter 2, "Appetite in Victo- 
rian Children's Literature". The au- 
thor says that Carroll differs from 
most Victorian authors in his (mostly) 
positive portrayal of girlhood 



appetite, yet he rejects grown 
women's appetites. 

Four Colors Suffice: Hoiu the Map Problem 
Was Solved by Robin Wilson (Prince- 
ton University Press, 2003). The au- 
thor gives one and a half pages to 
Carroll, including a brief bio and the 
"Queen receiving Determinants' story, 
which he correctly states that Carroll 
denied. He also cites Collingwood's 
story of Carroll's version of the four- 
color map game. 

James Le Fanu's The Doctor Is Baffled 
(Constable and Robinson, 2001) 
contains the claim "that 'Alice in 
Wonderland Syndrome' may be 
hereditary, associated with fever, mi- 
graine (with which Lewis Carroll 
suffered), epilepsy, nightmares, or 
after reading for a long time with 
incorrectly prescribed lenses", accord- 
ing to an Oct. 26, 2002 review in The 
Lancet. 

Francis Spufford's The Child That 
Books Built (Faber, 2003) discusses 
Lewis Carroll's works placing them 
"in that unacknowledged canon 
which, in many ways, should take the 
place of the pantheon of self-absorb- 
ed worthies which the university 
presses peddle to us", according to a 
review in The Independent on Sunday, 
March 16, 2003. 

Funny Letters from Famous People 
(Broadway Books, 2003) by Charles 
Osgood, includes Carroll's 1867 
"Bibkins" letter to Annie Rogers. 

The Constants: From Alpha to Omega — 
The Numbers That Encode the Deepest 
Secrets of the Universe hy ]o\\n Barrow, 
(Pantheon Books, 2003). The author 
writes of a meeting between Edding- 
ton and Einstein and how they had a 
"mutual appreciation of relativity, golf 
and Lewis Carroll". He even prints a 
full seven-stanza parody of "The Wal- 
rus and the Carpenter" that they both 
enjoyed, written by W. H. Williams, a 
fellow physicist and golfer. 

Did you know that "Doojum" is an 
area in Western Australia? That "Joo- 
jum" is a bar and nightclub in Gar- 
dena, CA? If not, and if you'd like the 
rest of the alphabetical "^oojums", 
you need A-B-C-ooJum, compiled by 
Byron Sewell. He'll e-mail you a copy 



on request; write to him at 
yjsewell@charter.net. 



ARTICLES 

Maurice SagofFs humorous poem 
"Alice in Wonderland" appeared in 
the January 2003 issue of the maga- 
zine Literary Cavalcade. 

The Guardian (U.K.) on 12/14/02 
excerpted A.S.Byatt's introduction to 
the Modern Library Classics edition 
of AWas their cover story. Also online 
at http://books.guardian.co.uk/ 
review/story/0,12084,858945,00.html. 

Bill Ott's "Quick Bibs" column in 
American Libraries, March 2003, re- 
views Cohen's biography and Invent- 
ing Wonderland and says that there is 
such a thing as an asexual obsession 
with childhood, citing Michael Jack- 
son (?!) as a contemporary example. 



CYBERSPACE 

The Looking Glass: New Perspectives on 
Children 's Books is an electronic jour- 
nal about children's literature put out 
by The Toronto Centre for the Study 
of Children's Literature and can be 
found at www.the-looking-glass.net. 
Most of the journal's departments 
have Alician names, and there are 
many Carrollian articles and features, 
well worth browsing. Unfortunately, 
it's neither indexed nor searchable 
but you might start with Volume 3 
Issue 3, December 1999, in the 
Archives. 

Some photographs and a description 
of Gretchen Van Lente's puppet show 
"Curiouser &: Curiouser" about CLD 
and APL can be seen at www.drama 
ofworks.com/shows/curiouser/. 

Episode 3 of The Animatrix, available 
at www.intothematrix.com (Flash & 
Quicklime) and on DVD, is an anime 
detective story, part of The Matrix, that 
contains numerous explicit refer- 
ences to Alice (even more than in the 
first movie), including a cat named 
Dinah. Speaking of which: 

"Dew" has delineated many of the 
connections between The Matyix a.nd 
the Alice books at www.geocities.com/ 
Hollywood/Theater/91 75/neo/ 
matrixconnections.html. 



41 



Howard Besser's T-Shirt database at 
http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/T-Shirts/ 
includes one from the University of 
Pittsburgh School of Library and 
Information Science 1962-1992, de- 
picting a scene from AH^and a quote 
from Humpty Dumpty as a string of 
binary code and in Adobe PostScript. 
You can see a scan, but these are not 
for sale. 

The Lester S. Levy Collection of Sheet 
Music at Johns Hopkins University 
contains over 29,000 pieces of music 
spanning the period 1780 to 1960. A 
search on "wonderland" yields 18 hits, 
"Lewis Carroll" 7, and "Sylvie and 
Bruno", alas, 0. An image of the cover 
and each page of music will be re- 
trieved if the music was published 
before 1923 and is in the public do- 
main. http://levysheetmusic.mse. 
jhu.edu/ 

Our own Monica Edinger's AWproj- 
ect is featured in the March issue of 
Reading OnlJne, the International 
Reading Association's electronic jour- 
nal. "I was interviewed last fall by 
Nicole Strangman who has done a 
spectacular job illustrating the inter- 
view with video clips, images and links 
galore. Not only am I delighted at 
how well the unit is represented, but I 
think it is a pretty cool example of 
online journalism." www.reading 
online.org/articles/art_index.asp? 
HREF=/articles/voices/edinger. 



http://web2.mgc.edu/gpsa or con- 
tact him at hcline@mgc.edu. 



ACADEMIA 

On 12 April 2003, Dn Francine F. 
Abeles presented a paper entitled 
"Charles L. Dodgson's Memoria Technica 
Cipher" to the Eastern regional meet- 
ing of the American Mathematical 
Society, held at New York University. 

Angelica Carpenter's "Literary Gar- 
dens" slide show and travelogue fea- 
tured "the" garden at Oxford. Mechan- 
ics Institute, San Francisco, 15 May. 

Call for Presentations and Proposals. 
Harold Cline would be interested in a 
talk on CLD's thoughts on their 
theme, "Consequences of Institutions 
and Cultures", at the Annual Meeting 
of the Georgia Political Science Asso- 
ciation, November 14-15, 2003, in 
Pine Mountain, Georgia. See 



EXHIBITIONS 

Britain's National Trust has opened 
John Lennon's childhood home, 
Mendips in Woolton. In his bedroom 
one sees that "books by the much- 
loved Lewis Carroll sit open on a 
desk", according to a March 28 story 
in the Liverpool Echo. 

In the Biovies Garden in Menton, 
Southern France, sculptures of AW 
characters are made from lemons and 
oranges in this year's Fete du Citron. 

"The Other Side of Childhood: Night- 
mare Images in Alice's Wonderland" 
features illustrations by various artists. 
At the Utah Museum of Fine Arts, 
University of Utah, March 9-April 30, 
2003. 

The San Jose Museum's splendid 
traveling exhibit "Alice's Wonderland: 
A Most Curious Adventure" {KL 70, 
pp. 2-4) is at The Children's Museum 
in Boston, March 16-June 1, 2003. 
From there it travels to the Pittsburgh 
(PA) Children's Museum, opening 
June 21 and running to September 7. 
Then it goes to the Strong Museum in 
Rochester, NY. 

In "Dreamchild", Australian photog- 
rapher Polixeni Papapetrou re-stages 
CLD's photographs, using her six-year 
old daughter Olympia as muse and 
model, and printing them mural-size. 
The exhibit runs from June 14— July 
13 at the new Photo-Graphic Gallery 
in the Soho area of New York City. A 
lecture by its curator, Alison Holland, 
will take place on Saturday June 21. 
See www.photo-graphicgallery.com, or 
call 212.715-1838. Simultaneously: 

The International Center of Photog- 
raphy in New York City will be pre- 
senting the exhibition "Dreaming in 
Pictures: The Photography of Lewis 
Carroll" from SFMoMA {KI. 70, pp. 
3-4). The exhibition will open to the 
public on June 6 and remain on view 
through August 31, 2003. Interpretive 
programming planned by ICP in- 
cludes a lecture on Wednesday, June 
4, by Douglas Nickel, its curator, and 
weekly gallery talks, www.icp.org. 



"Julia Margaret Cameron: 19"' Cen- 
tury Photographer of Genius", cu- 
rated by Colin Ford and accompanied 
by his critical illustrated biography 
Julia Margaret Cameron: The Complete 
Photographs, began at the National 
Portrait Gallery (London) and will be 
at the Getty in Los Angeles from 21 
October to 11 January, 2004. It in- 
cludes at least ten images of Alice 
Liddell, as well as her sisters, Ellen 
Terry, etc. You can order the book 
from their site wMrw.getty.edu/ 
bookstore/titles/julia.html. The Getty 
Museum requires reservations very 
much in advance for visitors with cars. 
See the Visitor Guide section of 
www.getty.edu for details. 



PERFORMANCES NOTED 

Boston's Underground Railway The- 
ater in collaboration with Stage Re- 
view presented a one-act play derived 
from both of the Alice books, directed 
by Greg Smucker. Robyn Sue Miller's 
parody of "Jabberwocky" begins 
"'Twas acrylic and the slimy stove / 
Did require a nimble kitchen slave." 
Dec. 25-31,2002. 

In Milwaukee on Feb. 18 the New 
York Theatre Ballet's AWwas per- 
formed. "The conceit of the produc- 
tion, conceived and choreographed 
by Keith Michael, is that it is a themed 
vaudeville show at the Palace Theater, 
New York, in 1915." 

The title of the above section is "Exhi- 
bitions" but if it were "Exhibitionism" 
we would dutifully have to note "Orgy 
Down the Rabbit Hole" performed at 
the Mitchell Brothers O'Farrell The- 
ater in San Francisco in April. 

Manhattan Children's Theater, 380 
Broadway, presented AWon Saturdays 
and Sundays, March 21 through May 
11,2003 

"Alice" at The Utopian Theatre Asy- 
lum (T.U.T.A.) Theatre in Chicago, 
an adaptation by Stephen Angus and 
Zeljko Djukic, May 1-June 8. www.tu- 
tato.com. 

The Eighth Annual San Francisco 
Silent Film Festival will feature a 
showing of several of Disney's early 
"Alice in Movieland" films on Satur- 
day, July 12"'. Alice herself, Virginia 



42 



Davis (McGhee) will do an onstage 
interview with Russell Merritt, co- 
author of Walt In Wonderland. 
Leonard Maltin will most likely be 
introducing the program, www.silent 
film.org or contact the director, 
Stephen Salmons, at 415.777-4908 fax 
415-777-4904, stephen@silentfilm.org. 



1^ 

AWARDS 
John Mayer's song 'Your Body Is a 
Wonderland" won for "Best Male Pop 
Vocal Performance" at the 45"' annual 
Grammy awards. 

Our Lewis Carroll Homepage had the 
honor of being highlighted in April 
4"''s Internet Scout Report http:// 
scout.wisc.edti/report/sr/2003/scout 
-030404-geninterest.html#3. 



AUCTIONS 

Frank Adams' watercolor and ink 
rendering of Alice and the Rabbit 
from Stories Old and New (Blackie, 
1911) was auctioned by Illustration 
House on May 10"'. Estimated at 
$3,500-5,000, it fetched $7,700. 
WAVw.illustration-house.com. 



THINGS 

The LP "Songs of the Pogo" by Walt 
Kelly has been reissued on CD by the 
"Reaction Recordings" label of Para- 
sol Records. It contains a musical 
setting of Carroll's "Evidence" poem 



from AW ("They told me you had 
been to her . . ."), as well as the essay 
"Three Little Maids: Walt Kelly and 
the Nonsense Tradition" by Mark 
Burstein, discussing Kelly's links with 
James Joyce and Lewis Carroll. See 
www. parasol.com, or send $12+2.75 
p&h to Parasol Records, 303 West 
Griggs St., Urbana IL 61801. 217.344- 
8609. 

Restoration Hardware has a rusty- 
finished, cast-iron pig with wings in 
their stores ($39). It's also in their 
current catalog, www.restorationhard 
ware.com. 800.816-0901. 

Art & Artifacts catalog has a seven- 
piece Wonderland "Limoge-style" 
porcelain box set for $30. Sizes range 
from 3-4J^". www.artandartifact.com 
(search for "Wonderland"); 800.231- 
6766. 

House Parts of Atlanta, GA is offering 
three large resin Wonderland statues 
either plain or painted. Alice stands 
25r tall ($90 painted, $80 white), the 
Rabbit is 18 'A" tall ($75 painted, $65 
white), and the Cat 7)4" ($55 painted, 
$45 white). 404.577-5584. "The Alice 
and Cat are particularly Tenniel-in- 
spired and the paint job is almost a 
little gothic (perhaps as it should 
be?). The unpainted white set they 
sell is a bit less moody looking (and I 
think the white set is safe for use out- 
doors)." -Andrew Sellon. 



From the "Garden Shed" of Better 
Homes and Gardens magazine comes 
"Mr. Garden Bunny, a tuxedoed rab- 
bit", holding a pocket watch. I suspect 
it is identical to the above, www.bhg. 
com/gardenshed4. 

Cast resin decorative plaques of the 
Cheshire Cat, the Dodo, and the 
Gryphon come from WTiite Winds in 
Somerset, England via Stuffe & Non- 
sense at www.stuffemal.com. $25. 

A single CD with over three thousand 
books on it (including AW, TLG, S&fB, 
Snark), any of which can be read 
aloud to you by your computer, costs 
only $20. It can be ordered from 
www.bookcdrom.com. 

Lucien Desar's lyrical "AWSuite" CD 
from Silent Spirit Records, PO Box 
374, Salem MA 01970; 617.499-1946; 
www.desar.com. $18. A detailed flyer 
is included in this issue's mailing. 

Donald A. Peters' superb signed litho- 
graph (30" x 24") of a garden land- 
scape with miniature Alice characters 
{KL 62 p.23) is now priced at 50% off 
($23.75). Mr. Peters died last Novem- 
ber, but his work can be seen at 
www.dianesteele.com/products/alice. 
html. Order from Diane Steele, Art- 
steeles@aol.com; 323 E. Mafilija St. 
PMB 169, Ojai, CA. 93023; 805.646. 
5702. It's an exceptional piece. 




AAuG p. 6y: are there hidden figures in Ihefidiagef 
asks Rulli Berman — see page 8 



43